شخصیت نوع-D و تصویر بدن در مردان: نقش ورزش دختران
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37060||2010||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5793 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Body Image, Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 39–45
The ‘Distressed’ or Type-D personality is described by the interaction between high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition. This study investigated the prevalence of Type-D personality in men of different exercise status, the association between Type-D and body image perceptions, and the moderating effect of exercise status. Participants were 564 British males aged between 18 and 55 years. Of these 200 were classified as sedentary, 148 as active and 216 as weight trainers. Participants completed the DS14 and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Results showed that more individuals were classified as Type-D in the sedentary group (45%) than the two active groups, and in the weight training (24.5%) than the active (14.2%) group. Both Type-D and a sedentary lifestyle were associated with a significantly poorer body image. However, exercise mode was not associated with body image differences. Sedentary Type-D men scored significantly lower in Body Areas Satisfaction and higher in Self-Classified Weight than both active groups. Regular exercise might provide a pathway for Type-D men to develop a more positive body image.
It has long been assumed that interacting personality traits can have a negative effect on health and behavior. Based on this idea Denollet, Sys, and Brustsaert (1995) delineated the ‘Distressed’ personality type. The ‘Distressed’ or Type-D personality type describes individuals who have a tendency to experience emotional and interpersonal problems. In particular, Type-D personality is characterized by high levels of the familiar personality constructs negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) (Denollet, 2005). Individuals high in NA experience negative emotional states across time and situations (Watson & Clark, 1984). For example, NA individuals experience more distress, anxiety, irritability, pessimism, worry, and have a negative view of oneself, the world, the future, and others. SI, on the other hand, is associated with inhibiting the expression of emotions, thoughts, and behaviors in social interactions (Kupper & Denollet, 2007). Individuals high in SI are more tense, have fewer personal ties, and are uncomfortable in meetings with other people (Denollet, 2005 and Larsen and Ketelaar, 1991). When high on both NA and SI an individual is said to have a Type-D personality. It is the synergetic effects of negative affectivity and social inhibition that defines Type-D personality (Kupper & Denollet, 2007).