سینماتراپی با نوجوانان با تجربه طلاق والدین: مطالعه موردی جمعی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37126||2010||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7887 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : The Arts in Psychotherapy, Volume 37, Issue 4, September 2010, Pages 311–318
Abstract A multiple-case study of the use of cinematherapy in six sessions of individual therapy each with three preadolescent aged children who were experiencing parental divorce was conducted. Questions to facilitate discussion and expressive activities including art, creative writing, story-telling, and/or drama were used. Multiple themes emerged across the cases including the usefulness of films to help children identify and express emotions, increased sharing, and increased coping. Interactive viewing was a new concept to emerge and involved a child spontaneously interacting with a film and/or the therapist through narrating, sharing thoughts and emotional responses, or interacting expressively while viewing providing therapeutic opportunities. Furthermore, all the children shared the plots from films or television shows they watched outside of therapy which can be viewed as a form of story-telling which conveyed their concerns and contributed to healing. Through their expressive responses, children experienced catharsis and created therapeutically relevant metaphors.
Introduction Cinematherapy, an extension of biblio/poetry therapy, is a creative approach to therapy in which films pertaining to clients’ issues are assigned to clients to watch during or between sessions with the opportunity to discuss the films with a psychotherapist afterward. Films can be used to engage the imagination, enable discussion of difficult material by decreasing resistance, allow for emotional release and expression, help clients view problems from different angles, and provide role models or alternative solutions. The purpose of this collective case study which was the subject of the author's recent dissertation was to explore the use of cinematherapy in a six-week individual therapy intervention with three preadolescent aged children who were experiencing parental divorce. Film clips from six films which have been recommended in the cinematherapy literature were shown in individual therapy with each child. Follow-up questions were used to promote discussion about the children's reactions to the film clips. Each child was given the opportunity to select expressive activities, including art, creative writing, story-telling, and drama to explore his or her own responses to the films creatively. Each child was interviewed about his or her thoughts about the intervention one to two weeks later. Themes were developed within and across cases; and then compared with the existing literature. Providing therapeutic opportunities to help children grieve the losses associated with divorce, increase accurate and adaptive beliefs about divorce, and develop coping skills is crucial. However, children are often unable or unwilling to express their thoughts and feelings verbally in therapy, therefore creative approaches to treatment can be helpful (Berns, 2003, Pardeck, 2005 and Tyson et al., 2000). Biblio/poetry therapy has been used to facilitate communication with children about transitions in the family, including divorce (Berns, 2003, Hames and Pedreira, 2003, Pardeck, 2005, Sargent, 1985 and Tussing and Valentine, 2001). For the purposes of this article, the term biblio/poetry therapy will be used as recommended by Hynes and Hynes-Berry (1994). Hynes and Hynes-Berry proposed the term biblio/poetry therapy to encompass both bibliotherapy and poetry therapy. Likewise, the National Association for Poetry Therapy defines the term “poetry therapy” as encompassing both bibliotherapy and the use of films in therapy: “The term “poetry therapy” encompasses bibliotherapy (the interactive use of literature) and journal therapy (the use of life-based reflective writing) as well as therapeutic storytelling, the use of film in therapy, and other language-based healing modalities” (http://poetrytherapy.org/about.html). Biblio/poetry therapy can be a particularly useful intervention for preadolescents experiencing divorce, who may feel too old for play therapy, yet may not all be ready for talk therapy (Pehrsson, Allen, Folger, McMillen, & Lowe, 2007). However, like Bowen (2006), I have found that books are less popular with many child and adolescent clients, because some young clients do not want to invest the time required for reading, and many prefer technology, television, and movies. Cinematherapy is an extension of biblio/poetry therapy (Berg-Cross et al., 1990, Calisch, 2001, Hebert and Neumeister, 2001, Hebert and Neumeister, 2002, Portadin, 2006 and Sharp et al., 2002) which may have useful applications in the treatment of preadolescents experiencing parental divorce. Many authors have recommended films which may be clinically useful for a variety of problems and issues including parental divorce (Berg-Cross et al., 1990, Dermer and Hutchings, 2000, Grace, 2006, Hesley and Hesley, 2001, Solomon, 2001, Solomon, 2005, Ulus, 2003 and Wolz, 2005). However, there remains a need to explore the use of recommended films with children in an in depth way.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Conclusion Through watching films in therapy three preadolescent aged children were helped to express their feelings on a deeper level, experience catharsis of anger and sadness, develop new coping skills for dealing with parental divorce, and feel less alone in dealing with the potentially isolating experience of parental divorce. Furthermore, one child generalized the experience and began to watch films at home in more therapeutic ways which provided her with a means of self-growth and coping. Cinematherapy is a useful tool in therapy which presents interesting directions for future research.