منابع خانواده به عنوان میانجی در ارتباط میان طلاق و تعامل مدرسه کودکان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37146||2014||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9712 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : The Social Science Journal, Volume 51, Issue 4, December 2014, Pages 564–579
Abstract Children are increasingly growing up in non-intact families. Because the family is a vital developmental part of growing-up, parental divorce can have far-reaching effects on children. This article investigates whether divorce interferes with children's engagement in school. According to the deprivation perspective, the effect of a parental divorce on children is mediated through the availability of family resources. Structural equation models are performed on the Leuven's Adolescent and Family Study. We conclude that the parental divorce effect on school engagement is mediated by the parent-child relationship, parental conflict, and financial problems at home.
Introduction Demographic and social evolutions have made family structures more complex and diverse (Kalmijn, 2007). Rising divorce rates have resulted in a declining prevalence of traditional nuclear families (Wu, Hou, & Schimmele, 2008). These societal changes intersect with the day-to-day life experiences of children; as a result, more and more children live in single-parent and stepfamily households. Growing up with divorced parents is related to negative child outcomes, such as lower levels of well-being and lower academic achievement (Amato, 2010 and Amato and James, 2010). The effect of divorce on children's educational outcomes is especially important to examine, as education is one of the most important social cleavages in society (Berlin, Furstenberg, & Waters, 2010). Individuals with a higher educational degree generally have more opportunities in the labor market, whereas those with a lower educational level often attain a lower occupational status and income level (OECD, 2013). Previous research has primarily focused on the school performance of children after divorce; they generally have lower grades and a higher risk of early school drop-out than children of married parents (Cavanagh et al., 2006, Ham, 2003, McLanahan and Percheski, 2008 and Sun and Li, 2001). A number of recent studies look into the effects of divorce on children's non-cognitive educational outcomes (Brown, 2006, Cavanagh et al., 2006, Garg et al., 2006, Breivik and Olweus, 2008 and Tillman, 2007). Non-cognitive educational outcomes relate to attitudinal, personal, and behavioral qualities at school. There is growing recognition of the importance of these non-cognitive outcomes for children, such as academic achievement, success in higher education, and employability (Heckman and Kautz, 2012 and Johnson et al., 2001). This study focuses on the non-cognitive outcome of school engagement. The concept of school engagement not only covers behavioral aspects, such as school attendance, homework, and participation in class, it also covers more emotional and cognitive aspects, such as interest in school, motivation to study, and development of learning strategies (Dee & West, 2011). School engagement is strongly linked to dropout rates (Finn, 1989), entrance into post-secondary education, and labor market participation in adult life (Finn & Owings, 2006). Furthermore, school engagement can be considered part of children's well-being (Pollard & Lee, 2003). Looking into the mechanisms that affect children's school engagement can help researchers design targeted interventions to improve children's school experiences and decrease drop-out behavior (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004). As a consequence, the focus in this study is not only on the association between divorce and children's school engagement, but also on potential mediators of the negative effects. Some researchers claim parental divorce by itself is the most important and direct cause of negative child outcomes (Kelly & Emery, 2003). Stress and crisis theories argue that during a parental divorce children experience divorce-related stress, which leads to different negative outcomes. According to these theories, the psychological impact of a divorce itself causes lower levels of well-being and educational performance (Amato, 2000). There is, however, a need to investigate the mechanisms through which a divorce can affect child outcomes (Amato, 2010 and Lansford, 2009). Identifying the processes that mediate the relation between divorce and child outcomes has particular importance for the development of interventions for children, parents, and families as a unit. In what follows, we focus on the resource deprivation perspective, which considers the loss of parental resources after divorce as the most important cause of negative post-divorce child outcomes. The main research question is: “Does the availability of family resources mediate the association between parental divorce and children's school engagement?” This study differs from previous research in a number of ways. Firstly, the resources deprivation perspective is explicitly tested by means of structural equation modeling. This technique allows us to estimate the indirect effects of divorce through different types of family resources. Also, relationships between different types of family resources are specified. To our knowledge, this has not been investigated in the same manner yet. Secondly, this research is conducted using a broad sample of secondary school pupils in Flanders, Belgium. Belgium has one of the highest crude divorce rates in Europe with 2.9 divorces per 1000 inhabitants in 2011 (Eurostat, 2012). Based on National Registry figures, Lodewijckx (2005) estimates that a minimum of 20% and a maximum of 24% of the 0–17 year olds have experienced a divorce of their parents. The crude divorce rate of Belgium is comparable to the one in the United States (Eurostat, 2012). Belgium combines this high divorce rate with significantly lower levels of school engagement than the OECD average (UNICEF, 2010).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
5. Results 5.1. Measurement model We conduct confirmatory factor analyses for every latent construct. A first confirmatory factor analysis is performed for the items of school engagement. After inspection of the correlation matrix (Appendix 4), item 6 (‘not important for future’) is excluded from the analysis because of a low correlation, less than .25, with six out of the eleven other items. Based on the modification indices, the constraint on the correlation between the error terms of three item pairs is freed. The standardized factor loadings of the final model are all larger than .400 and significant (p < .01). The fit indices also indicate a good model fit. The final factor solution is presented in Fig. 2. Confirmatory factor analysis of school engagement. Note: Entries are ... Fig. 2. Confirmatory factor analysis of school engagement. Note: Entries are standardized factor loadings. Marker indicators are presented by°. Full arrows denote significant effects (p < .05). Error terms are available upon request. Figure options A second confirmatory factor analysis is conducted for the nine items measuring the quality of the relationship between children and their fathers, and for the nine items measuring the quality of the relationship between children and their mothers. After examination of the modification indices, error correlations between equivalent items of both scales are included. The two latent constructs are measured via successive quasi-identical items; therefore, children have the tendency to give highly similar answers to these questions. This is referred to as a method effect (Brown, 2006). After freeing the constraint on the correlations between these error terms, the model fit is sufficient (CFI = 931; TLI = 916; RMSEA = 087; SRMR = 060). The standardized loadings of the items are higher than .400 and significant (p < .01). The factor solution for both latent constructs is presented in Fig. 3. Confirmatory factor analysis of the quality of the relationship with mother and ... Fig. 3. Confirmatory factor analysis of the quality of the relationship with mother and father. Note: Entries are standardized factor loadings. Marker indicators are presented by°. Full arrows denote significant effects (p < .05). Error terms are available upon request. Figure options A third confirmatory factor analysis is conducted for parental conflict. Because this scale only consists of three items, the model is just-specified (CFI = 1.000; TLI = 1.000; RMSEA = .000; SRMR = .000). The standardized loadings of the items are higher than .400 and significant (p < .01). The factor solution is presented in Fig. 4. Confirmatory factor analysis of parental conflict. Note: Entries are ... Fig. 4. Confirmatory factor analysis of parental conflict. Note: Entries are standardized factor loadings. Marker indicators are presented by°. Full arrows denote significant effects (p < .05). Error terms are available upon request. Figure options In the null model, the measurement models of all latent constructs – school engagement, the quality of the relationship between children and mother, the quality of the relationship between children and father, and parental conflict – are included simultaneously and allowed to correlate with each other. The fit indices indicate this measurement model is well-specified (CFI = .923; TLI = .914; RMSEA = .055; SRMR = .048). Furthermore, all standardized factor loadings are higher than .400 and significant (p < .01). After determining the measurement of the latent constructs, we specify the relations between the observed variables and latent constructs and examine a structural model in which the effect of a parental divorce on school engagement is partially mediated through family resources. In this manner, we analyze the direct and indirect effects of parental divorce on school engagement mediated through the family resources. Not all indices meet the criteria to conclude that this is a good model fit (CFI = .887; TLI = .877; RMSEA = .054; SRMR = .096). Nevertheless, we proceed with this model because it corresponds the most to the theoretical framework of the resources perspective and because all fit indices are very close to the cut-off criteria. 5.2. Direct relations between parental divorce and family resources The direct relations between divorce and family resources are presented in Table 1. Parental divorce has a negative significant association on financial and social family resources. Children who live in non-intact families experience more financial problems at home and live in families with more strained relations. Children with divorced parents generally have lower educated parents than children who live in intact families. Furthermore, the results show that financial problems in the family are also negatively related to the parent-child relationship and parental conflict. The effects of parental divorce and financial problems are particularly strong for parental conflict. Parents’ educational level is significantly related to financial problems: a high educational level of mother and father is related to fewer financial problems in comparison to a medium educational level. Also, there is a significant correlation between parents’ educational level and having divorced parents. Children with higher educated parents are less likely to have divorced parents than children with medium educated parents. The opposite holds true for children with low educated parents: they are more likely to have divorced parents than children whose parents have a medium educational level. Table 1. Unstandardized and standardized estimates, standard errors and significance levels for structural equation model of family resources. Estimate S.E. Standardized estimate Sign. Dependent variable: relation with mother Parental divorcea −0.080 0.022 −0.048 *** Financial problems −0.118 0.012 −0.141 *** Dependent variable: relation with father Parental divorcea −0.454 0.025 −0.236 *** Financial problems −0.168 0.013 −0.173 *** Dependent variable: parental conflict Parental divorcea 0.209 0.012 0.398 *** Financial problems 0.632 0.024 0.261 *** Dependent variable: financial problems Parental divorcea 0.578 0.024 0.291 *** Educational level motherb Low 0.159 0.049 0.049 *** High −0.167 0.027 −0.095 *** Educational level fatherb Low 0.025 0.045 0.008 High −0.136 0.027 −0.078 *** Covariance with divorce Educational level motherb Low 0.003 0.002 0.027 * High −0.019 0.003 −0.085 *** Educational level fatherb Low 0.004 0.002 0.034 ** High −0.022 0.003 −0.102 *** Source: LAFS 2008–2011. a Parental divorce: 0 = no, 1 = yes. b Educational level: reference category = medium. * p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001. Table options 5.3. Direct relations between divorce, family resources and school engagement The three indicators of social family resources have strong and significant positive associations with school engagement (Table 2). Children who live in families with good interpersonal relationships between parents and children and among parents themselves, feel more engaged in school. Financial and human family resources, and parental divorce are not directly related to school engagement. With regard to the control variables, girls, younger children, and children in the general and technical educational tracks are more engaged in school than boys, adolescents, and children in vocational tracks. Table 2. Unstandardized and standardized estimates, standard errors and significance levels for direct relations in the structural equation model of school engagement. Estimate S.E. Standardized estimate Sign. Parental divorce 0.023 0.022 0.017 Family resources Financial problems 0.011 0.011 0.015 Educational level mother Low 0.036 0.035 0.016 High −0.030 0.021 −0.024 Educational level father Low −0.001 0.034 −0.001 High 0.026 0.020 0.021 Relation with mother 0.187 0.013 0.224 *** Relation with father 0.067 0.012 0.092 *** Parental conflict −0.096 0.017 −0.109 *** Control variables Age −0.012 0.004 −0.037 ** Gender −0.141 0.016 −0.115 *** Educational track General 0.128 0.021 0.103 *** Technical 0.079 0.021 0.059 *** Source: LAFS 2008–2011. ** p < .01. *** p < .001. Table options 5.4. Indirect relations between parental divorce, family resources, and school engagement Indirect relations between parental divorce, financial and human family resources, and school engagement are presented in Table 3. Children with divorced parents have significantly worse relationships with their parents and a higher risk of disengagement from school. Additionally, children with divorced parents report a significantly higher frequency of conflict between their parents. The association with parental conflict is the strongest indirect pathway to school engagement. The mediating effect of financial family resources runs through social family resources. Children with divorced parents perceive more financial problems at home, which is related to more problematic relationships between parents, and between the child and the parent. Lower availability of social family resources is negatively associated with children's school engagement. Table 3. Unstandardized and standardized estimates, standard errors and significance levels for parental divorce's indirect relations in the structural equation model of school engagement. Estimate S.E. Standardized estimate Sign. Parental divorcea via Financial problems 0.006 0.006 0.004 Relation with mother −0.015 0.004 −0.011 *** Relation with father −0.030 0.006 −0.022 *** Parental conflict −0.060 0.011 −0.043 *** Financial problems and relation with mother −0.013 0.002 −0.009 *** Financial problems and relation with father −0.006 0.001 −0.005 *** Financial problems and parental conflict −0.012 0.002 −0.008 *** Total of indirect effects −0.130 0.014 −0.094 *** Source: LAFS 2008–2011. a Parental divorce: 0 = no, 1 = yes. *** p < .001. Table options The indirect relations between family resources and school engagement are presented in Table 4. Financial problems have a significant negative relation with children's school engagement via the availability of social family resources. The educational level of mother and father is also indirectly related to school engagement, but these estimates are smaller than the indirect relation between financial problems and school engagement. The results show that having a highly educated mother is positively related to school engagement in an indirect manner, in comparison to having a medium educated mother. Having a low educated mother is indirectly related to lower school engagement compared to having a medium educated mother. These effects are mediated by financial resources and social family resources. Only the indirect relation via financial problems is insignificant. The father's educational level is significant only in relation to a highly educated father and strong school engagement versus a medium educated father. This factor is also mediated by financial problems and the three measures of social family resources. Table 4. Unstandardized and standardized estimates, standard errors and significance levels for family resources’ indirect relations in the structural equation model of school engagement. Estimate S.E. Standardized estimate Sign. Financial problems via Relation with mother −0.022 0.003 −0.032 *** Relation with father −0.011 0.002 −0.016 *** Parental conflict −0.020 0.004 −0.028 *** Total of indirect effects −0.053 0.005 −0.076 *** High educational level of mothera via Financial problems −0.002 0.002 −0.001 Financial problems and relation with mother 0.004 0.001 0.003 *** Financial problems and relation with father 0.002 0.000 0.002 *** Financial problems and parental conflict 0.003 0.001 0.003 *** Total of indirect effects 0.007 0.002 0.006 *** Low educational level of mothera via Financial problems 0.002 0.002 0.001 Financial problems and relation with mother −0.004 0.001 −0.002 ** Financial problems and relation with father −0.002 0.001 −0.001 ** Financial problems and parental conflict −0.003 0.001 −0.001 ** Total of indirect effects −0.007 0.003 −0.003 * Low educational level of fathera via Financial problems 0.000 0.001 0.000 Financial problems and relation with mother −0.001 0.001 0.000 Financial problems and relation with father 0.000 0.000 0.000 Financial problems and parental conflict 0.000 0.001 0.000 Total of indirect effects −0.001 0.002 0.000 High educational level of fathera via Financial problems −0.001 0.002 −0.001 Financial problems and relation with mother 0.003 0.001 0.002 *** Financial problems and relation with father 0.002 0.000 0.001 *** Financial problems and parental conflict 0.003 0.001 0.002 *** Total of indirect effects 0.006 0.002 0.005 ** Source: LAFS 2008–2011. a Educational level: reference category = medium. * p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001.