دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 37173
عنوان فارسی مقاله

بررسی فرآیندهای پیونددهنده اختلال محله و چاقی ادراک شده

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
37173 2008 9 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.
عنوان انگلیسی
An examination of processes linking perceived neighborhood disorder and obesity
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Social Science & Medicine, Volume 67, Issue 1, July 2008, Pages 38–46

کلمات کلیدی
نابرابری های سلامتی - محله - جرم بدن - پریشانی - پریشانی روانی - آمریکا
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله بررسی فرآیندهای پیونددهنده اختلال محله و چاقی ادراک شده

چکیده انگلیسی

In this paper, we use data collected from a statewide probability sample of Texas, USA adults to test whether perceptions of neighborhood disorder are associated with increased risk of obesity. Building on prior research, we also test whether the association between neighborhood disorder and obesity is mediated by psychological, physiological, and behavioral mechanisms. We propose and test a theoretical model which suggests that psychological distress is a lynchpin mechanism that links neighborhood disorder with obesity risk through chronic activation of the physiological stress response, poor self-rated overall diet quality, and irregular exercise. The results of our analyses are generally consistent with this theoretical model. We find that neighborhood disorder is associated with increased risk of obesity, and this association is entirely mediated by psychological distress. We also observe that the positive association between psychological distress and obesity is fully mediated by physiological distress and poor self-rated overall diet quality and only partially mediated by irregular exercise.

مقدمه انگلیسی

Studies consistently show that residents of neighborhoods characterized by socioeconomic disadvantage, social disorganization, and disorder tend to exhibit higher rates of obesity than residents of other neighborhoods (Boardman et al., 2005, Burdette et al., 2006, Cohen et al., 2006, Glass et al., 2006, Inagami et al., 2006, Mujahid et al., 2005, Poortinga, 2006, Robert and Reither, 2004 and Ross et al., 2007). If neighborhood conditions actually increase the risk of obesity, how do they? Researchers explain that residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods live within systems of obesity that are defined by a constellation of factors that encourage risky eating habits and discourage regular physical activity, including high fast-food outlet density and related marketing, restricted access to grocery stores, supermarkets, recreational amenities, exercise facilities, health centers and health-related information, widespread structural disrepair, fear of crime, and other psychosocial stressors (Chang, 2006, Cohen et al., 2006, Cummins and Macintyre, 2006, Diez Roux, 2003, French et al., 2001, Glass et al., 2006, Hill and Peters, 1998, Inagami et al., 2006, Papas et al., 2007, Poortinga, 2006, Reidpath et al., 2002, Robert and Reither, 2004, Ross et al., 2007 and Stimpson et al., 2007). Although researchers often speculate as to how adverse neighborhood conditions might increase the risk of obesity, only a few studies have attempted to explain this association empirically (e.g., Cohen et al., 2006, Glass et al., 2006, Inagami et al., 2006 and Poortinga, 2006). Surprisingly, this small body of research has shown very little support for structural characteristics of the neighborhood (e.g., access to grocery stores) and individual health behaviors (e.g., diet and exercise) as potential mediators. For example, Glass et al. (2006) use data collected from a large probability sample of older adults living in the Baltimore area to test whether the association between perceived neighborhood hazards and obesity is mediated by poor dietary behavior (percent calories from fat and total dietary intake) and reduced physical activity (vigorous activity and leisure-time walking), but show no support for these mechanisms. Although these results appear to exclude diet and physical activity as viable explanations, additional research is needed to confirm these patterns and to establish new processes, including psychological and physiological pathways (Cohen et al., 2006, Glass et al., 2006 and Poortinga, 2006). In this paper, we use data collected from a statewide probability sample of Texas adults to test whether perceptions of neighborhood disorder are associated with increased risk of obesity. In the state of Texas, obesity affects over one quarter of the adult population and accounts for more than $5 billion in medical expenditures each year (Finkelstein et al., 2004 and Wang and Beydoun, 2007). Building on prior research, we also test whether the association between neighborhood disorder and obesity is mediated by psychological, physiological, and behavioral mechanisms. We propose that living in a neighborhood that is perceived as noisy, unclean, and crime-ridden can be psychologically distressing, which increases the risk of obesity through chronic activation of the physiological stress response, poor self-rated overall diet quality, and irregular exercise.

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