مصرف الکل و تعاملات اجتماعی در میان نوجوانان در سوئد: آیا اثرات همسالان در داخل و/یا بین اکثریت جمعیت و مهاجران وجود دارد؟
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37193||2010||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6112 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Social Science & Medicine, Volume 70, Issue 11, June 2010, Pages 1858–1864
Are adolescents who attend schools with a high level of alcohol use and binge drinking more likely to use alcohol and binge drink themselves? This paper analyzes peer effects in adolescent drinking based on a survey of 13,070 adolescents conducted in Sweden in 2005. The empirical analysis uses a multi-level logistic model to account for non-observable heterogeneity between the schools and the results show that attending a school with a high level of alcohol use and frequent binge drinking is a strong predictor of alcohol use and binge drinking for the individual. Hardly any significant interaction effects are detected, implying that peer influence is similar across different adolescent sub-groups. Looking at adolescents with different ethnic backgrounds, it is found that the drinking-pattern of the Swedish majority population has a significant effect on drinking by Swedish individuals and immigrants from Nordic and European countries, but no effect on drinking by immigrants from non-European countries.
A large body of research by social scientists shows that the behavior of peers is an important predictor of adolescent behavior, often referred to as peer effects, (Becker, 1996, Coleman, 1990 and Crane, 1991) and/or a contagion model (Monshouwer et al., 2007 and Wilcox, 2003). Regarding alcohol use, this implies that the probability of an adolescent drinking alcohol is positively associated with the prevalence of alcohol use among peers (Clark and Lohéac, 2007, Gaviria and Raphael, 2001, Lundborg, 2006 and Norton et al., 1998). Further, it has been argued that peer effects are more important among adolescents compared to the adult population, i.e., adolescents pay more attention to the behavior of their peers (Lewitt, Coate, & Grossman, 1981), which has several interesting potential welfare implications. For example, Becker (1992) showed that peer effects (and addiction) would increase the absolute value of price elasticity, which implies a higher sensitivity to price changes. Further, peer effects may serve to amplify the effects of interventions to reduce alcohol use (Lundborg, 2006, p. 215). A particular intervention that reduces alcohol use for a specific adolescent may also reduce alcohol use among the peers of the adolescent, implying a further reduction in alcohol use (social multiplier).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper has three main research questions. The first question is whether adolescents in Sweden who attend a school with a high share of peers using alcohol and binge drinking are more likely to use alcohol and binge drink themselves. As seen in Table 2 the answer is yes, for both alcohol use and frequent binge drinking. The relationship is relatively stronger for frequent binge drinking. This is in line with a previous Swedish paper, which examines the same issue using data from a small municipality in the south of Sweden (Lundborg, 2006), as well as with other studies in other countries (Clark and Lohéac, 2007, Gaviria and Raphael, 2001 and Kremer and Levy, 2008). The second question is whether the influence of peer behavior is equally strong among girls/boys, adolescents in school years 7 and 9, Swedish majority population adolescents and immigrant adolescents as well as adolescents who live with a single parent. As suggested by Steinberg (1987), depending on the strength of family ties, the importance of peers may be different for different adolescents. However, the results shown in Table 3 show almost no significant interaction effects, i.e., it cannot be rejected that the influence of peers is equally strong in almost all the mentioned adolescent groups where interaction effects are tested. The only exception to this result is for girls' alcohol use, which indicates a stronger influence from peers. In Clark and Lohéac (2007) it was found that both boys and girls are affected (relatively similar) by male peers, but not female peers, regarding alcohol use. What we find here is that girls tend to be more affected by the behavior by peers, even though we do not examine further if this is caused by the behavior by boy or girl peers.