اثر برتری صفت واکنش های روانی و قلبی و عروقی به تلاش های نفوذ اجتماعی: نقش برتری جنسیتی و شریک زندگی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37242||2005||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5934 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Psychophysiology, Volume 55, Issue 3, March 2005, Pages 279–289
This study investigated the influence of trait dominance on cardiovascular reactivity to and recovery from a dyadic interaction task requiring active social influence attempts. Thirty-six male and 36 female normotensive high-school students characterized as either high or low in trait dominance engaged in a mixed-gender discussion with a high or low dominant partner. Trait dominance substantially influenced cardiovascular reactivity to the interpersonal stressor. High dominant participants displayed higher increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP), but lower diastolic elevations than low dominant participants. The difference in diastolic reactivity was particularly pronounced in females. Recovery from stress was influenced by level of partner dominance. Participants interacting with a dominant partner showed delayed diastolic recovery. The observed cardiovascular effects seem to reflect greater task engagement and efficient coping in dominant subjects. Group differences in cognitive task appraisals and affective experiences are consistent with this interpretation. Differences in psychological responding were not found to mediate the relation between trait dominance and cardiovascular responses, however.
It is well established that the type of situational demand exerts a substantial influence on the magnitude and patterning of cardiovascular responses. In particular, the task typology of active vs. passive coping (Obrist, 1981) has been demonstrated to correspond to distinct cardiovascular adjustments. Active coping, or effortful attempts to exert influence over outcomes has consistently been found to produce large, beta-adrenergically mediated, increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) without a necessary increase in diastolic pressure (DBP). Cardiovascular responses accompanying the passive tolerance or endurance of a stressor appear to be mediated via alpha-adrenergic pathways indicated by enhanced DBP reactivity and smaller SBP or HR effects (Hartley et al., 1999 and Sherwood et al., 1990). The myocardial effects of active coping situations exceed metabolic demands (Carroll et al., 1986) and are considered to primarily reflect energy mobilization and task engagement (Obrist, 1981 and Wright, 1996). In agreement with this interpretation, cardiac activity was found to be moderated by factors that are likely to influence performance motivation, such as intermediate task difficulty (Smith et al., 1990 and Wright et al., 1998), incentives (Gramer and Huber, 1996 and Smith et al., 1989) and evaluative observation (Kelsey et al., 2000).