دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 37308
عنوان فارسی مقاله

اسراری از دوستان و پدر و مادر: پیوند طولی با افسردگی و رفتار ضد اجتماعی

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
37308 2013 9 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.
عنوان انگلیسی
Secrets from friends and parents: Longitudinal links with depression and antisocial behavior
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Journal of Adolescence, Volume 36, Issue 4, August 2013, Pages 685–693

کلمات کلیدی
محرمانه بودن - دوستی - پدر و مادر - افسردگی - رفتارهای ضد اجتماعی
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله اسراری از دوستان و پدر و مادر: پیوند طولی با افسردگی و رفتار ضد اجتماعی

چکیده انگلیسی

Abstract Keeping secrets from parents is associated with depression and antisocial behavior. The current study tested whether keeping secrets from best friends is similarly linked to maladjustment, and whether associations between secrecy and maladjustment are moderated by the quality of the friendship. Adolescents (N = 181; 51% female, 48% white, non-Hispanic, 45% African American) reported their secrecy from parents and best friends, the quality of their parent–adolescent relationships and best friendships, and their depression and antisocial behavior at ages 12 and 13. Keeping more secrets from best friends was associated with more depression, but not with more antisocial behavior, when controlling for earlier adjustment, secrecy from parents, and the quality of the friendship. For girls associations between maladjustment and secrecy were conditioned by the quality of the relationships and whether secrets were kept from parents and friends. Discussion argues for expanding the study of secrecy in adolescence beyond the parent–child dyad.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

Results Descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations are shown in Table 1. More secrecy from best friends was associated with more secrecy from parents, lower friendship quality, more depression, and more antisocial behavior. Boys reported more secrecy from friends than did girls. More secrecy from parents was associated with lower parent–child relationship quality, more depression, and more antisocial behavior. Table 1. Descriptive statistics and correlations among all variables. Variable M (SD) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1. Secrecy from friends – 12 1.96 (.76) 2. Secrecy from friends – 13 1.80 (.73) .43*** 3. Secrecy from parents – 12 2.14 (.87) .54*** .31*** 4. Secrecy from parents – 13 2.35 (.94) .27*** .39*** .60*** 5. Friendship quality – 12 4.23 (.72) −.46*** −.33*** −.24*** −.04 6. Friendship quality – 13 4.25 (.76) −.19* −.36*** −.02 .04 .55*** 7. P–C Relation. Quality – 12 4.14 (.80) −.31*** −.15 −.47*** −.19* .34*** .19* 8. P–C Relation. Quality – 13 4.00 (.86) −.17* −.14 −.31*** −.39*** .24** .32*** .61*** 9. Depression – 11 2.61 (.83) .27*** .18* .34*** .24** −.07 −.04 −.23** −.37*** 10. Depression – 12 2.50 (.75) .46*** .19* .55*** .45*** −.16* .01 −.33*** −.22** 11. Depression – 13 2.56 (.71) .04 .33*** .36*** .53*** −.02 −.05 −.21* −.29*** 12. Antisocial behavior – 11 1.26 (.33) .23** .15 .27*** .17* −.10 −.08 −.28*** −.30*** 13. Antisocial behavior – 12 1.30 (.42) .07 .18* .27*** .25** −.03 −.07 −.23** −.20* 14. Antisocial behavior – 13 1.34 (.41) .07 .20* .30*** .37*** .02 −.08 −.31*** −.29*** 15. Sex .26*** .26*** .07 −.01 −.42*** −.44*** −.17* −.12 Variable 9 10 11 12 13 14 10. Depression – 12 .50*** 11. Depression – 13 .31*** .44*** 12. Antisocial behavior – 11 .40*** .31*** .27*** 13. Antisocial behavior – 12 .24*** .27*** .21* .69*** 14. Antisocial behavior – 13 .31*** .33*** .34*** .58*** .82*** 15. Sex .07 .05 −.06 .20** .12 .20* ns = 146–181. P–C Relation. = Parent–child relationship. Sex is coded 0 = female, 1 = male. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001. Table options A set of six polynomial regression equations were fit to test the primary hypotheses in cross-sectional analyses at ages 12 and 13 (controlling depression and behavior problems one year earlier) and in longitudinal analyses from age 12 to age 13. In the first equation, age 12 depression was regressed on age 11 depression and the age 12 secrecy from friends, secrecy from parents, friendship quality, and parent–child relationship quality variables. Two sets of interaction terms also were included in the equation. The first set of three terms tested the secrets from friends × friendship quality, secrets from parents × parent–child relationship quality, and secrets from friends × secrets from parents interactions. The second set of seven terms tested all two-way and three-way interactions with sex. In the second equation, age 13 depression was regressed on age 12 depression and the age 13 secrecy and relationship quality variables and interaction terms. The third equation was longitudinal and regressed age 13 depression on age 12 depression and the age 12 secrecy and relationship quality variables. Finally, associations with antisocial behavior were tested with an analogous set of three equations in which antisocial behavior replaced depression. The equations first were fit with all interaction terms. However, because including non-significant interaction terms in the model hinders interpretation of lower-order effects (Cohen, Cohen, West, & Aiken, 2003), the equations were re-fit after removing all non-significant interaction terms that were not necessary for interpreting significant higher order interactions. Significant two-way and three-way interactions were interpreted by calculating simple slopes as recommended by Cohen et al. (2003) using tools developed by Preacher, Curran, and Bauer (2006). Depression In the cross-sectional age 12 model, more secrecy from parents was associated with more depression (Table 2). The association between secrecy from friends and depression was moderated by sex and friendship quality as shown by the significant 3-way sex × secrets from friends × friendship quality interaction (see Fig. 1). Girls' greater secrecy from friends was associated with less depression at lower levels of friendship quality (b = −.554, SE = .200, p < .007), but with more depression at higher levels of friendship quality (b = .418, SE = .131, p < .002). For boys, secrecy from friends was associated with more depression at both higher and lower levels of friendship quality (bs = .282 & .318, SEs = .142 & .107, ps = .048 & .003). In the cross-sectional age 13 model, more secrecy from parents and best friends were uniquely associated with more depression. Table 2. Regression coefficients from the depression models. Variable Concurrent models Longitudinal model Age 12 depression Age 13 depression Age 13 depression B SE B* p B SE B* p B SE B* p Prior depression .27 .06 .30 <.001 .26 .07 .27 .001 .36 .09 .37 <.001 Sex −.13 .10 −.09 .17 −.23 .11 −.16 .033 −.23 .13 −.16 .086 Parent–child relationship quality (RQ) −.07 .06 −.07 .28 −.08 .07 −.10 .22 −.03 .08 −.03 .71 Friendship quality (FQ) .09 .12 .08 .47 −.04 .08 −.04 .62 .01 .09 .01 .89 Secrecy from parents (SP) .28 .06 .32 <.001 .23 .07 .31 .001 .06 .12 .08 .61 Secrecy from friends (SF) −.07 .11 −.07 .52 .17 .08 .18 .029 −.13 .15 −.13 .40 SP × RQ SF × FQ .68 .18 .46 <.001 SP × SF −.35 .13 −.30 .011 Sex × RQ Sex × FQ .01 .15 .01 .96 Sex × SF .37 .14 .27 .008 −.01 .19 −.01 .97 Sex × SP .12 .16 .10 .45 Sex × SP × RQ Sex × SF × FQ −.70 .21 −.43 <.001 Sex × SP × SF .42 .19 .25 .032 R2 .49 .001 .38 <.001 .31 <.001 Note: Depression at age 11 served as prior depression for the age 12 analyses and depression at age 12 served as prior depression for the age 13 analyses. Age 12 secrecy and relationship quality variables served as predictors in the age 12 concurrent model and in the age 13 longitudinal model. Age 13 secrecy and relationship quality variables served as predictors in the age 13 concurrent model. Sex is coded 0 = female, 1 = male. Table options Age 12 friendship quality (FQ), secrecy from friends, and sex interact to ... Fig. 1. Age 12 friendship quality (FQ), secrecy from friends, and sex interact to predict age 12 depression. Figure options In the longitudinal age 13 model, the association between secrecy from friends was moderated by sex and secrecy from parents as shown by the significant sex × secrets from parents × secrets from friends interaction (see Fig. 2). For girls, greater secrecy from friends was associated with less depression at higher levels of secrecy from parents (b = −.429, SE = .139, p < .003) but not at lower levels of secrecy from parents (b = .175, SE = .232, p = .45). For boys, secrecy from friends was not associated with depression at higher or lower levels of secrecy from parents (bs = −.071 & −.198, SEs = .158 & .179, ps = .66 & .27). Age 12 secrecy from parents (SP), secrecy from friends, and sex interact to ... Fig. 2. Age 12 secrecy from parents (SP), secrecy from friends, and sex interact to predict age 13 depression. Figure options Antisocial behavior As shown in Table 3, there were no significant interactions in the age 12 or age 13 cross-sectional models. At age 12, more secrecy from parents was associated with more antisocial behavior whereas more secrecy from best friends was associated with less antisocial behavior. At age 13, more secrecy from parents was associated with more antisocial behavior but secrecy from best friends was not significantly associated with antisocial behavior. Table 3. Regression coefficients from the antisocial behavior models. Variable Concurrent models Longitudinal model Age 12 antisocial behavior Age 13 antisocial behavior Age 13 antisocial behavior B SE B* p B SE B* p B SE B* p Prior antisocial behavior .79 .08 .61 <.001 .72 .05 .76 <.001 .71 .04 .75 <.001 Sex .03 .05 .03 .65 .10 .04 .12 .02 .07 .04 .08 .13 Parent–child relationship quality (RQ) −.02 .04 −.03 .63 −.03 .03 −.07 .18 −.04 .05 −.08 .35 Friendship quality (FQ) .01 .04 .01 .87 .02 .03 .03 .55 .08 .03 .14 .008 Secrecy from parents (SP) .09 .04 .19 .011 .07 .03 .16 .004 −.04 .04 −.08 .30 Secrecy from friends (SF) −.11 .04 −.19 .01 −.02 .03 −.03 .60 −.05 .03 −.09 .14 SP × RQ .18 .05 .32 <.001 SF × FQ SP × SF Sex × RQ −.04 .06 −.06 .49 Sex × FQ Sex × SF Sex × SP .14 .05 .20 .01 Sex × SP × RQ −.21 .06 −.32 <.001 Sex × SF × FQ Sex × SP × SF R2 .42 <.001 .719 <.001 .76 <.001 Note: Antisocial behavior at age 11 served as prior antisocial behavior for the age 12 analyses and antisocial behavior at age 12 served as prior antisocial behavior for the age 13 analyses. Age 12 secrecy and relationship quality variables served as predictors in the age 12 concurrent model and in the age 13 longitudinal model. Age 13 secrecy and relationship quality variables served as predictors in the age 13 concurrent model. Sex is coded 0 = female, 1 = male. Table options In the longitudinal age 13 model, greater friendship quality was associated with more antisocial behavior. The association between secrets from parents and antisocial behavior was moderated by sex and parental acceptance as shown by the significant sex × secrecy from parents × parental acceptance interaction (see Fig. 3). For girls, greater secrecy from parents was associated with less antisocial behavior at lower levels of parental acceptance (b = −.184, SE = .062, p < .004) but with more antisocial behavior at higher levels of parental acceptance (b = .110, SE = .027, p < .001). For boys, greater secrecy from parents was associated with more antisocial behavior at lower levels of parental acceptance (b = .121, SE = .032, p < .001) but secrecy from parents was not associated with antisocial behavior at higher levels of parental acceptance (b = .077, SE = .066, p = .24). Secrecy from best friends was not associated with antisocial behavior longitudinally for boys or girls. Age 12 parent–child relationship quality (RQ), secrecy from parents, and sex ... Fig. 3. Age 12 parent–child relationship quality (RQ), secrecy from parents, and sex interact to predict age 13 antisocial behavior.

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