تحقیقات آینده نگر از عوامل خطر عصبی تکاملی برای رفتار ضد اجتماعی بزرگسالان با ترکیب سوابق بازداشت رسمی و خودگزارشی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37328||2015||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5749 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Psychiatric Research, Volume 68, September 2015, Pages 363–370
Abstract Neurodevelopmental deficits are postulated to play an important role in the etiology of persistent antisocial behavior (ASB). Yet it remains uncertain as to which particular deficits are most closely associated with ASB. We seek to advance this understanding using prospectively collected data from a birth cohort in which multiple indices of neurodevelopmental functioning and ASB were assessed. Participants (n = 2776) were members of the Providence, Rhode Island cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Information on demographic and neurodevelopmental variables was collected from pregnancy through age 7. When all offspring had reached 33 years of age an adult criminal record check was conducted. A subset of subjects also self-reported on their engagement in serious ASB. Bivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between each neurodevelopmental factor and adult ASB and test whether associations varied depending on how ASB was ascertained. After controlling for background and contextual characteristics, maternal smoking during pregnancy, lower childhood verbal and performance IQ, and age 7 aggressive/impulsive behavior all significantly increased the odds of adult ASB. Associations were not modified by sex and did not depend on how ASB was assessed. However, while both males and Black participants were more likely to engage in ASB than their respective female and White counterparts, relationships were significantly stronger for official records than for self-reports. Results point to a particular subset of early neurodevelopmental risks for antisocial outcomes in adulthood. Findings also suggest that prior contradictory results are not due to the use of official records versus self-reported outcomes.
Introduction Early neurodevelopmental deficits have been postulated to play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of persistent antisocial behavior (ASB) into adulthood (Moffitt, 1993). Factors from the prenatal period to early childhood have been investigated, including maternal smoking during pregnancy (D'Onofrio et al., 2010, Paradis et al., 2011 and Wakschlag et al., 2002), pregnancy/delivery complications (PDCs) (Arseneault et al., 2002, Hodgins et al., 2001, Murray et al., 2010 and Raine et al., 1997), low birth weight (Hack et al., 2004, Murray et al., 2010, Tibbetts and Piquero, 1999 and Vaske et al., 2015), aggressive and impulsive behavior (Caspi, 2000, Dubow et al., 2014 and Farrington, 1995), and indices of cognitive functioning such as IQ (Dubow et al., 2014, Raine et al., 2005 and Sampson and Laub, 1993). Although some factors have shown robust associations with antisocial outcomes (e.g., lower verbal IQ), support for other early neurodevelopmental deficits (e.g., PDCs, low birth weight) has been equivocal. Identifying the neurodevelopmental factors most closely associated with persistent ASB is necessary to enhance our understanding of the etiology of such behavior. To further our knowledge of the possible neurodevelopmental underpinnings of ASB, it is important to consider how methodological variations across studies may impact observed associations, including differences in outcome assessment. Adult ASB is frequently assessed using either official arrest records or self-reports of engagement in such behavior. Some researchers have suggested that differences in the measurement of ASB across investigations may (partially) explain previous inconsistent findings of the relationship between risk factors, including indices of neurodevelopmental functioning, and antisocial outcomes (Arseneault et al., 2002, Kirk, 2006, Maxfield et al., 2000, Moffitt et al., 1994 and Moffitt and Silva, 1988). For instance, it is well-established that official records underestimate criminal activity since only a small fraction of criminal behavior comes to the attention of law enforcement, police use discretion in deciding who to arrest, and not all arrests are officially recorded (Blumstein et al., 1986 and Worden and Myers, 1999). Furthermore, not all types of ASB are criminal in nature. It is therefore possible that the relationships between particular neurodevelopmental deficits and adult ASB have been underestimated in studies using official records. Biases in self-reports have also been noted; the potential for significant under-reporting of ASB as well as over-reporting in particular subgroups has been documented (Kirk, 2006 and Maxfield et al., 2000). However, researchers have rarely examined how measurement of ASB may impact observed associations between neurodevelopmental deficits and antisocial outcomes. Other methodological variations have been cited as potential explanations for discrepant results. For example, it has been suggested that differences in how information on neurodevelopmental deficits is collected (e.g., prospective vs. retrospective reports) may influence findings (Arseneault et al., 2002). Aggregating different types of antisocial problems (e.g., violent and nonviolent behaviors) into a single outcome may also possibly attenuate or mask meaningful associations (Barker et al., 2007). In some studies, neurodevelopmental factors have been found to be predictive of only those subtypes of ASB characterized by violence and aggression (Raine et al., 1994). Finally, many previous investigations examining associations between indices of neurodevelopmental functioning and ASB have focused exclusively on males. Studies that have included both sexes have sometimes found evidence that the association between neurodevelopmental factors and ASB is stronger for males than females (e.g., Murray et al., 2010 and Wakschlag et al., 2002). Yet further investigations of large mixed sex samples are needed to determine whether sex modifies the relationship between compromised neurodevelopmental functioning and ASB, or whether neurodevelopmental deficits play a similar role in the initiation and maintenance of behavior problems in both females and males.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
5. Conclusions Understanding the relationship between early neurodevelopmental deficits and the risk of later serious ASB has important implications for theory, research, and practice. Our findings suggest a cluster of demographic/contextual factors and early neurodevelopmental deficits that increase the risk of engaging in antisocial and criminal behavior in adulthood. Developmental theories of life-course-persistent antisocial behavior propose that an interplay between trait vulnerability and environmental factors produces antisocial continuity (Moffitt, 1993). These data are consistent with this literature, suggesting that adult ASB has roots in both early environmental deprivation (e.g., low socioeconomic status) and neurodevelopmental insults. Children who exhibit those early neurodevelopmental problems identified in the current study might benefit from early intervention to forestall the later development of serious behavioral difficulties.