اختلال شخصیت ضد اجتماعی به عنوان پیش بینی کننده رفتار مجرمانه در یک مطالعه طولی از یک گروه از معتادان با چندین درجه مختلف از مواد مخدر: ارتباط با نوع ماده و نوع جرم
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37370||2008||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Addictive Behaviors, Volume 33, Issue 6, June 2008, Pages 799–811
Abstract Mixed findings have been made with regard to the long-term predictive validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on criminal behaviour in samples of substance abusers. A longitudinal record-linkage study of a cohort of 1052 drug abusers admitted 1977–1995 was undertaken. Subjects were recruited from a detoxification and short-term rehabilitation unit in Lund, Sweden, and followed through criminal justice registers from their first treatment episode to death or to the year 2004. In a ML multinomial random effects regression, subjects diagnosed with antisocial personality disorders were 2.16 times more likely to be charged with theft only (p < 0.001), and 2.44 times more likely to be charged committing multiple types of crime during an observation year (p < 0.001). The findings of the current study support the predictive validity of the DSM-III-R diagnosis of ASPD. ASPD should be taken seriously in drug abusers, and be targeted in treatment to prevent crime in society.
. Introduction Crime and drug abuse go together. Miller and colleagues estimated that 5.4 million violent crimes and 8 million property crimes involved alcohol and other drugs use in the USA in 1999 (Miller, Levy, Cohen, & Cox, 2006). Drug users report greater involvement with crime than non-users, and are more likely to have criminal records. Persons with criminal records are much more likely to be drug users than others. Among Swedish drug users identified in the criminal justice system, the majority have been sentenced for a non-drug offence, such as theft or violence (Wittrock, 2006). Alcohol abuse precedes or accompanies a large proportion of violent crime (Gorman et al., 1998, Rossow, 2001, Scribner et al., 1999 and Scribner et al., 1995). Several mechanisms may explain these associations. Drug users may be involved in crime to obtain money for drugs; drug users may also commit crime under the influence of drugs; and drug users, or a subset of drug users, may share characteristics that predispose them to criminal behaviour, such as antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). ASPD and crime have been studied in a number of studies of drug abusers (Alterman and Cacciola, 1991, Alterman et al., 1998, Alterman et al., 1996, Bell et al., 1997, Bovasso et al., 2002, Grella et al., 2003, Hernandez-Avila et al., 2000, Kranzler et al., 1997, McKay et al., 2000, Messina et al., 2003, Messina et al., 2002, Messina et al., 1999 and Verheul et al., 1999). Some studies have found ASPD to predict criminal behaviour following treatment (Bell et al., 1997, Grella et al., 2003, Kranzler et al., 1997 and Verheul et al., 1999). However, other studies have reported no association with crime (Alterman et al., 1998, Bovasso et al., 2002, Hernandez-Avila et al., 2000, McKay et al., 2000 and Messina et al., 1999). Several factors could account for these inconsistent findings. Reporting bias or publication bias could lead to under-reporting of negative findings, or the actual relationship between ASPD and crime may be small (Clarke & Oxman, 2002). However, some of the studies reporting positive findings have been relatively large studies (e.g., Grella et al., 2003). These mixed findings could lead to doubt concerning the validity of diagnoses, and raise the possibility that the diagnosis of ASPD in substance abusers is a diagnostic artefact. ASPD may be misdiagnosed, because substance-related problems cause fluctuating symptoms that mimic, but are not, ASPD. However, there are limitations to this literature. Many studies rely on self-reported crime and have short follow-up times for relatively rare events such as being sentenced to prison. Often follow-up times are less than 3 years (see Table 1). Table 1. Studies on the longitudinal association between ASPD and crime in substance abusers Reference Treatment N/n with ASPD Diagnostic approach Follow-up time Follow-up data collection Key findings Alterman et al., 1996 MMT and counselling 184/59 SCID-II 7 months Self-report ASPD less criminal Alterman et al., 1998 MMT 193a Various 7 months Self-report Non-significant findings Bell et al., 1997 MMT 304a DIS 12 months Self-report ASPD symptom count associated with criminal involvement Bovasso et al., 2002 MMT 254a PDE 2 years Criminal justice records ASPD not associated with crime, after controlling for psychopathy and socialization Grella et al., 2003 Mixed drug free 707/291 DIS 5 years Self-report Higher level of criminal involvement for ASPD, no time⁎ASPD effect Hernandez-Avila et al., 2000 Mixed drug free 276/75 SCID-II 12 months Self-report No significant effects reported Kranzler et al., 1997 Mixed in- and outpatient 100/23 LEAD 6 months Self-report ASPD predicted days in jail, but not ASI legal problems McKay et al., 2000 Drug free aftercare 127/46 PDE 12 months Self-report No differences reported — low level of criminal involvement for all subjects Messina et al., 1999 TC 338/166 SCID-II 19 months Criminal justice records Fewer arrests among ASPD+ subjects Verheul et al., 1999 Mixed alcoholism treatment 309/95 CIDI 14 months Self-report Small, non-significant difference indicating higher level of legal problems among ASPD+ subjects Notes: MMT: Methadone Maintenance Treatment. SCID-II: The Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R. DIS: Diagnostic Interview Schedule. PDE: Personality Disorder Examination. CIDI: Composite International Diagnostic Interview. LEAD: Longitudinal Expert All Data method. ⁎p < 0.05. ⁎⁎p < 0.01. ⁎⁎⁎p < 0.001. a N with ASDP not reported. Table options We recently published reports on crime for a consecutive sample from this institution admitted between 1988–1989 based on data from the criminal justice register in Sweden (BRÅ) and self-report (Fridell, Hesse, & Johnson, 2006). In that study we found that subjects with a diagnosis of ASPD, based on clinical observation, were substantially more criminally active than substance abusers without such a diagnosis. We also found that the diagnosis based on clinical observation was in fair agreement with SCID-II diagnoses of ASPD and borderline personality disorder (Fridell & Hesse, 2006). In order to more specifically assess which types of crime are related to ASPD, we therefore analyzed data on the full cohort of patients who were treated in the unit between 1977 and 1995 (see below).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
5. Conclusions This study has clearly showed that valid diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder could be made in substance abusers. Substance abusers varied substantially in both their propensity to commit crimes, as well as the pattern of crimes that they commit. Antisocial personality disorder, stimulant use, male gender, and young age were strong predictors of criminal behaviour in substance abusers.