تاثیر برداشت از اختلال اجتماعی و قربانی بر تصمیم گیری های صاحبان کسب و کار به استفاده از استراتژی های سرپرستی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37371||2008||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Criminal Justice, Volume 36, Issue 5, September–October 2008, Pages 396–402
Abstract Using social disorganization, broken windows, and routine activities theories as guides, this study considered how perceptions of crime in the neighborhood influenced business owners' decisions on the use of various crime prevention (guardianship) strategies. The analysis revealed that perceptions of a crime problem were influenced by the presence of disorder. Drug offenses and vandalism were particularly tied to disorder with drug offenses more often related to guardianship strategies than other offenses. In addition, several strategies were used as prevention measures counter-intuitively for crimes not affected by these strategies, suggesting the need for increased awareness and training for business owners on effective guardianship strategies.
Introduction Although most community research concentrated on crimes affecting residential areas, millions of dollars are lost each year in the United States to community businesses being victims of crimes (Purpura, 2002). These losses can have significant negative effects on operational and financial decisions that ultimately affect the community as a whole (Payne, 2003). Businesses may have shorter operating hours or leave the area altogether. Businesses that do stay may increase costs, which are eventually passed on to the consumer, or reduce their staff in order to defray the costs associated with victimization. One study suggested that 30 percent of the businesses studied had considered relocating because of the effect of crime and 29 percent had considered going out of business (Hopkins, 2002). Businesses will be affected by certain types of crimes more than others based on what type of business is conducted, the number of employees, the location of the business, the amount of suitable targets (both merchandise and people), and the amount of access to motivated offenders. Common offenses against businesses include vandalism, burglaries, robberies, shoplifting, and fraud (Coleman, 2002, Ferraro, 1995, Fisher, 1991, Manning, 1999, Payne and Gainey, 2004 and Skogan, 1990). In addition, broken windows, broken fences, and general trash and litter not only provide visual cues of social disorganization and disorder (Felson, 2002), but also victimize the business sector through costs of repairs and clean-up. While most agree that the costs of business crimes are significant, very little research has considered factors contributing to victimization or the ways businesses try to limit victimization. This study used social disorganization theory, broken windows theory, and routine activities theory as a guide to consider whether the degree of perceived disorder and the extent of the crime problem influences the decision to alter the levels of guardianship.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی