استفاده از فن آوری های تجارت الکترونیک در زنجیره تامین : تاثیر ویژگی های شرکت و تیم ها
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3747||2007||20 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||12180 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Operations Management, Volume 25, Issue 6, November 2007, Pages 1255–1274
This paper presents findings from an exploratory study that analyzes the drivers and outcomes of e-business technology use in the supply chain. Using a combination of case studies and survey data from a diverse sample of industries, the research examines how industry context, firm characteristics and firm-level strategic resources, such as purchasing teams, influence the exploitation of e-business technologies and the relationship between e-business technology use and firm performance. Based on a synthesis of related literatures from transaction cost economics and the relational view of the supply chain, a two-dimensional framework for e-business technology is proposed with transactional and relational dimensions. However, empirical analysis indicated that transactional technologies can be further subdivided into two factors: dyadic cooperation and price determination. Significant differences were found between the two dimensions in terms of their overall levels of adoption, with dyadic coordination being the most widely adopted. In addition, the development of strategic resources expanded, in particular internal and customer teams, the use of e-business technologies expanded. Purchasing organizational structure and firm size also were positively related to the adoption of transactional e-business technologies. Finally, of particular importance to practitioners, e-business technologies targeted at reducing dyadic coordination costs lead to improved financial performance.
There has been substantial managerial interest in opportunities to use e-business technologies in the supply chain to create competitive advantage. The literature suggests that the potential benefits of e-business technologies include lower prices from suppliers, improved speed and flexibility, lower transaction costs, higher customer service levels and reduced investments in supply chain inventories (Neef, 2001, Essig and Arnold, 2001 and Deeter-Schmelz et al., 2001). However, our understanding of how and where firms use e-business technologies, and the direct benefits that they provide, is still limited. As firms weigh opportunities to invest in new supply chain technologies and make the accompanying changes to their organizations, supply base and business processes, an improved understanding of where opportunities exist to better utilize e-business technologies is required. This paper examines how firm-level strategic resources, such as purchasing teams, influence the exploitation of e-business technologies and the relationship between e-business technology use and firm performance. Underpinning this research is literature in transaction cost economics, the resource based view and the relational view. Collectively, the paper offers three primary contributions. First, an important objective is to develop a better understanding of the relationships between different, but related forms of e-business technologies. In doing so, two general dimensions are identified and empirically validated using data from four case studies and a sample of 284 large North American firms. This data also provides the basis for assessing the level of use of e-business technology in supply chain management. Second, the research seeks to establish the relationship between the use of e-business technologies and its enablers, including related strategic resources such as purchasing teams. Research in the management information systems literature recognizes the importance of using cross-functional teams as part of successful implementation and assimilation of new information technologies (Robey et al., 2002), and purchasing teams represent a common approach to managing activities within the supply chain to achieve internal and external integration (Ellram and Pearson, 1993, Trent and Monczka, 1994 and Giunipero and Vogt, 1997). This path of inquiry suggests that merely investing in e-business technologies is not sufficient to provide competitive advantage; instead, it is the capabilities to effectively implement e-business technologies within the supply chain that is more important. Consequently, the successful adoption of e-business technologies might be expected to leverage the team-based boundary spanning capabilities provided by purchasing teams. Finally, a number of industry- and firm-level characteristics that affect the rate of technological change can also influence supply chain relationships, and thus, opportunities to use e-business technologies. Moreover, it is not clear what the competitive implications are for financial performance. To date, much of the research related to the benefits of e-business technology in supply chain management tends to be anecdotal, consisting of case studies. While that research has been useful in framing the potential opportunities, this research undertakes a broader assessment of firm financial performance related to the use of e-business in the supply chain.Drawing from the transaction cost economics, the resource based view and the relational view literature, the following section defines the constructs and hypothesized relationships that underlie relationships between the proposed drivers, e-business technology use and financial performance. Next, the survey methodology and construct measurement are detailed. Finally, the results and discussion are presented, along with implications for both future research and managerial practice.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This research had two primary objectives. The first objective was to gain a better understanding of potential drivers of e-business technology use, including firm-level strategic resources such as purchasing teams. The second objective was to explore the relationship between e-business technology use and firm performance. Drawing from three literatures, transaction cost economics, RBV and the relational view, a two-dimensional framework was constructed for e-business technology: transactional and relational technologies. Further empirical analysis dissected the transactional e-business technology dimension into two factors: dyadic coordination and price determination. In contrast, private exchange was identified as a relational technology factor. Overall, with the exception of dyadic coordination, the use of e-business technologies was low. However, as the use of strategic resources expanded, in particular internal teams and customer teams, the use of e-business technology expanded. Purchasing structure and firm size also were found to influence the adoption of dyadic coordination and price determination technologies, but not private exchanges. Whether centralized coordination of e-business activities is essential for effective use represents an opportunity for future research. While no evidence was found that the use of the price determination and private exchanges technology enhanced financial performance, clear evidence was found to indicate that firms benefited from the use of dyadic coordination technologies. This finding might help to explain the earlier finding of the greater relative use of dyadic coordination technologies, as managers have been investing more heavily in forms of e-business technology that offered early gains from relatively small early investments. Findings from this research suggest several opportunities for future research. Why is implementation of price determination and private exchange technologies lagging behind dyadic coordination? Our case study research suggests that sourcing strategies have an important influence on the adoption of these technologies. Further research may provide a clearer understanding of the major hurdles for adoption, as well as how particular forms, such as dyadic coordination, price determination and private exchanges, might collectively build competitiveness. Our findings also suggest that e-business technology use increases as organizational centralization increases. Consequently, as e-business technologies increase in use over coming years, it may become increasingly difficult for firms to completely decentralize their supply organizations without sacrificing performance benefits associated with e-business technology use and adoption. Future research can explore the influence of e-business technologies on supply organizational structures and responsibilities.