رابطه بین کمال گرایی و رضایت از زندگی چند بعدی در میان جوانان کرواسی و آمریکا
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37532||2005||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5090 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 39, Issue 1, July 2005, Pages 155–166
Although much research investigating multidimensional perfectionism has been conducted among adults from various cultures, little is known of the cross-cultural manifestation of perfectionism among school-age youth. In addition, no cross-cultural studies have compared the perceived life quality of youth identified as adaptive perfectionists (i.e., high personal standards but low distress when the standards are not met), maladaptive perfectionists (i.e., high personal standards, high distress), and non-perfectionists (i.e., significantly lower personal standards). In this study, Croatian youth completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised and the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale. Reports from this group were compared to a group of American youth. Results found differential predictive values of personal standards and discrepancy across satisfaction domains for both groups. Further, adaptive perfectionists reported significantly higher satisfaction across many life domains for both groups than maladaptive perfectionists and non-perfectionists. Males and females reported statistically equivalent satisfaction levels across most life domains-with the exception of friendship satisfaction. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research conclude the paper.
Although a precise definition of perfectionism remains elusive, the setting of especially high personal standards is a universally accepted characteristic (Flett & Hewitt, 2002). Historically, perfectionism has been conceptualized as a unidimensional construct with some authors viewing perfectionism as synonymous with psychological distress (e.g., Ellis, 1962 and Missildine, 1963). Conversely, other authors believed that having high personal standards was necessary for positive mental health (e.g., Adler, 1956). To reconcile these disparate views, Hamachek (1978) proposed a multidimensional model of perfectionism consisting of two separate but related subtypes. Normal perfectionists are individuals who report excessively high standards but nevertheless accept the fact that these standards will not always be attained. In contrast, neurotic perfectionists set similarly high standards but have difficulty accepting instances when their standards cannot be accomplished. Individuals in this latter group often find it difficult to feel satisfied with themselves or their performance and are often driven by the fear of failure more than the desire to succeed. Empirical studies among adults have supported Hamachek’s (1978) conceptualization. For example, normal (or adaptive) perfectionism has been significantly and positively related to self-esteem (Ashby & Rice, 2002), internal locus of control (Perisamy & Ashby, 2002), and positive affect (Rice & Mirzadeh, 2000). Conversely, neurotic (or maladaptive) perfectionism has been significantly related to depression (Bieling, Israeli, & Antony, 2004) and anxiety (Kawamura, Hunt, Frost, & DiBartolo, 2001).