گسترش و متقاطع خستگی و رضایت از زندگی در میان والدین حقوق بگیر دو گانه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37533||2005||24 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 67, Issue 2, October 2005, Pages 266–289
This study integrates spillover research of stress transferring from work to home and crossover research of strains transferring from one spouse to another. A spillover and crossover model was tested among 191 (couples of) dual-earner parents. For both males and females, it was hypothesized that (self-reported and partners’ rating of) work-to-family interference (WFI) partially mediates the job demands–job exhaustion relationship, and fully mediates the job demands–life satisfaction relationship. Further, we hypothesized reciprocal crossover effects between both partners’ job exhaustion and life satisfaction. The results of structural equation modeling analyses offered support for the mediating role of WFI although there were genders differences. In addition, we found a crossover path from females’ exhaustion to males’ exhaustion and from males’ life satisfaction to their partners’ life satisfaction. This implies that not only job-related strain, but also positive, context-free well-being may crossover among partners.
Many studies in the domain of Occupational Health Psychology have shown that unfavorable working conditions negatively influence employees’ mental and physical health and well-being (e.g., Quick and Tetrick, 2003 and Schabracq et al., 2003). However, less attention has been paid to possible consequences of (impaired) employee well-being for their spouses (Westman, 2001). Such a process may be particularly relevant to couples in which both members are employed and maintain a family that includes children (Rapoport & Rapoport, 1971). In the current study, we examine among dual-earner parents two possible ways in which job demands and strain may carry over from the work domain to the home domain: spillover and crossover. In spillover, reactions experienced in the work domain are transferred to and interfere with the non-work domain (e.g., Lambert, 1990 and Leiter and Durup, 1996). Although work may influence family life in both positive and negative ways ( Grzywacz & Marks, 2000), we will exclusively concentrate on how the work of employees negatively influences their personal functioning at home. This phenomenon is also known as work-to-family interference (WFI). Crossover denotes the process in which stress and strain experienced by employees leads to stress and strain experienced by their spouses at home ( Westman, 2001). Thus, spillover concerns an intra-individual transmission of stress or strain from one domain to another domain, while crossover refers to a dyadic, inter-individual transmission within the same domain. Our objectives were threefold. First, we examined whether WFI plays a mediational role between job demands and well-being. Although evidence for this mediation process has been reported in previous studies (e.g., Demerouti et al., 2004, Geurts et al., 1999 and Montgomery et al., 2003), the present study uses a different research strategy. Instead of utilizing only self-reports of WFI, as is done in most studies, we also use peer-ratings of spouses to evaluate work-to-family interference as perceived by their partners. This strategy may circumvent problems with common method variance in previous spillover research. Second, we investigated whether context-specific (work-related) feelings of exhaustion crossover to the partner. Again, this has been studied in the past (e.g., Westman & Etzion, 1999), but only a limited number of studies controlled for the job demands of each of the partners (see Westman, 2001; for a review). Finally, we examined the crossover of context-free (general) life satisfaction between partners, a phenomenon that has not been investigated. Therefore, our knowledge on whether—or to what extent—positive experiences may be transferred is insufficient (Westman, 2001). Fig. 1 illustrates the proposed spillover and crossover model of dual-earner parents. The model contains within-domain relationships (marked ‘w,’ i.e., the relationship between job demands and exhaustion for both partners), and between-domain relationships (marked ‘b,’ i.e., the relationship between job demands and WFI, and the relationships between WFI on the one hand, and job exhaustion and general life satisfaction on the other hand). Finally, the model includes two crossover relationships, marked ‘c,’ i.e., between the exhaustion of both partners and between their satisfaction with life in general. Before testing this hypothesized model, we will first review the literature on spillover and crossover, thereby making a distinction between within- and between-domain effects. The spillover and crossover model. Note. w, within-domain relationship; b, ... Fig. 1. The spillover and crossover model. Note. w, within-domain relationship; b, between-domains relationship; c, crossover relationship; and e, error term.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Despite these limitations, this is one of the first studies to simultaneously consider both spillover and crossover effects among dual-earner parents. When wives are confronted with high job demands this will negatively interfere with family life and increase their feelings of exhaustion. These feelings of exhaustion may consequently be transferred to their husbands. When husbands are confronted with high job demands this will also negatively interfere with family life and eventually diminish their life satisfaction. This experience of life satisfaction will consequently be transferred to their wives. In other words, spillover is one of the reasons why parents become exhausted or dissatisfied with their life or both, and these states, in turn, are crossing over to their partners. A clear contribution of our study was the evidence that both positive and negative experiences can be transmitted not only between the work and non-work domain (within the individual) but also between individuals. Previous research has shown that negative experiences at work can be transmitted to and inhibit family life as well as the other way around ( Geurts & Demerouti, 2003), and that positive experiences at the non-work domain positively influence the functioning at work ( Sonnentag, 2003). Moreover, studies on crossover have shown that negative experiences may crossover to colleagues ( Bakker, Demerouti, & Schaufeli, 2003) and to partners ( Westman, 2001). Consistent with Westman’s contention, the present study showed that positive feelings may also crossover between partners, particularly from husbands to their wives. Therefore, the crossover of positive feelings among partners should be placed more prominently on the research agenda, to further examine, whether this crossover concerns only global experiences, as was the case in our study, or whether also work or family related, positive experiences may crossover, such as work engagement or marital satisfaction.