تنهایی و رضایت از زندگی از پسران مبتلا به اختلال هماهنگی رشدی: تاثیر مشارکت اوقات فراغت و آزادی درک شده در اوقات فراغت
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37539||2008||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Human Movement Science, Volume 27, Issue 2, April 2008, Pages 325–343
A theoretical model linking motor ability with perceived freedom in leisure, participation in team sports, loneliness, and global life satisfaction was tested using linear confirmatory path analysis. Participants were 173 boys aged 10–13 years who filled in self-report questionnaires about perceived freedom in leisure, loneliness, and global life satisfaction. Parents of boys completed 7-day diaries and 12-month retrospective recall questionnaires about their son’s leisure-time activity participation. Results of path analyses confirmed that the fit of the hypothetical model was consistent with predictions. The inferred direct pathways of influence between both total loneliness and global life satisfaction on motor ability were in the expected directions (i.e., inverse and positive relationships, respectively). Perceived Freedom in Leisure (PFL) and participation in team sports were two intermediate variables indirectly influencing these relationships. Although PFL was identified as a motivational process influencing participation levels in team sports it was noted that other psychological and environmental factors must also be considered when evaluating child–activity–environment fit for boys with developmental coordination disorder.
Global life satisfaction is lower (Poulsen, Ziviani, & Cuskelly, 2006) and reported loneliness higher (Poulsen, Ziviani, Cuskelly, & Smith, 2007a) for boys with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) compared to boys without DCD. These self-perceptions have commonality, in so far as they both relate to subjective evaluations of quality of life and well being. While life satisfaction refers to self-perceptions of global need and goal fulfilment (Huebner, Suldo, Smith, & McKnight, 2004), loneliness refers to dissatisfaction with social relationships (Goossens & Beyers, 2002). It is important to understand why boys with DCD, who have disproportionately higher referral rates for intervention than girls with DCD, report lower global life satisfaction and more loneliness than their well coordinated peers. DCD is not an inconsequential condition but one that can have immediate and long-term psychological and physical morbidity. Therefore, understanding the links between motor ability, participation, life satisfaction, and loneliness will inform interventions and preventive programs to improve quality of life for these children.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This research informs one part of the SCOPE-IT model, specifically relating to the influence of one motivational process (PFL) influencing relationships between motor ability, time invested in the leisure category of team sports, and two quality of life outcomes; global life satisfaction and loneliness. Reciprocity between these variables could not be tested using a cross-sectional study alone. However, reciprocal relationships between related constructs, including motor ability, motivational factors such as effort and persistence in physical activities, self-concept perceptions, physical fitness, and time spent in public performance of physical activities have been previously described (Bouffard, Watkinson, Thompson, Causgrove Dunn, & Romanow, 1996). These authors proposed an activity-deficit hypothesis where boys with poor motor ability who had low participation in physical activities had reduced opportunities to practise skills, and this led to activity deficits and a developmental skill-learning gap (Wall, 2004). Exploration of these evolving relationships requires longitudinal research designs. Lower PFL for boys with DCD compared to boys without DCD is one part of the picture explaining lower participation in controversial activities, such as team sports. It is also one aspect that needs to be considered when appraising adverse psychosocial outcomes that include loneliness and low global life satisfaction for boys with poor motor ability. According to the SCOPE-IT model, other psychological and environmental factors, in addition to PFL, influence activity engagement in team sports and must be considered when evaluating the child–activity–environment fit.