حالت چهره کاهشی و بافت اجتماعی در افسردگی اساسی: اختلاف بین فعالیت ماهیچه های صورت و احساسات خود گزارشی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37583||2000||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Psychiatry Research, Volume 95, Issue 2, 21 August 2000, Pages 157–167
Abstract The expression of emotion is determined by emotion and the presence and absence of others, i.e. social context. The present study examined social context differences in facial muscle activity and self-reported emotion of 11 major depressed and 11 non-depressed patients. Subjects were asked to imagine happy and sad situations with and without visualizing other people. Facial muscle activity over the brow and cheek region was reduced in depressed compared to non-depressed patients during happy and sad imagery whereas self-reported emotion showed no group differences. In both subject groups, happy imagery induced increased smiling and self-reported happiness whereas sad imagery induced increased frowning and self-reported sadness. Smiling and self-reported happiness were increased during happy-social compared to happy-solitary imagery in both groups. In contrast, frowning showed a lack of social context differences, although self-reported sadness was increased during sad-social vs. sad-solitary imagery in both groups. Reduced facial muscle activity in depression may indicate psychomotor retardation whereas the lack of social context differences in frowning may suggest social disengagement and an inhibition of sad facial expression in the presence of others.
1. Introduction Previous research in healthy subjects indicates that happy stimuli induce smiling whereas sad stimuli induce frowning (e.g. Schwartz et al., 1976 and Cacioppo et al., 1986). However, facial expression is affected by the social context of the emotional situation, such as being alone (solitary situation) vs. being with others (social situation), and the role of the interaction partner in a social situation, i.e. strangers vs. friends. Smiling is increased during happy situations and frowning is increased during sad situations when being with others compared to being alone (e.g. Fridlund et al., 1992 and Hess et al., 1995). These social context differences in facial expression are more pronounced when the interaction partner is a friend rather than a stranger (Buck et al., 1992 and Hess et al., 1995). Therefore, facial expression may reflect both emotional and social functioning. This emotional and social functioning seems to be altered in depression. Some studies indicate that the expression of emotion is reduced in depressed compared to non-depressed patients (e.g. Schwartz et al., 1976, Pogue-Geile and Harrow, 1984, Katsikitis and Pilowsky, 1991 and Berenbaum and Oltmanns, 1992). Other studies show increased facial expression in depression (e.g. Greden et al., 1986). However, these studies used emotional stimuli without taking the social context into account. Facial expression and self-reported emotion were examined previously in depressed patients during social situations by Brown and colleagues. Depressed patients showed reduced smiling, although self-reported happiness was increased compared to that in non-depressed subjects (Brown et al., 1978) and subjects with schizophrenia (Brown et al., 1979). Discrepancies between facial expression and self-reported emotion in depressed subjects during social situations may indicate social disengagement (Ekman and Fridlund, 1987), i.e. the diminished motivation to express one’s emotion in the presence of others. Socially disengaged facial expression is not affected by social context and, therefore, should not differ between social (i.e. being with others) and solitary situations (being alone). Social context differences, or the lack thereof (i.e. social disengagement), in facial expression may be associated with underlying changes in self-reported emotion. For instance, social context differences in facial expression may reflect social context differences in self-reported emotion. Social situations may be more emotional than solitary situations and, thus, may induce both more facial expression and more self-reported emotion (Buck, 1991). Similarly, a lack of social context differences (social disengagement) in facial expression of depressed patients may reflect a lack of social context differences in self-reported emotion. Adjusting social context differences in facial expression, or the lack thereof, for social context differences in self-reported emotion may clarify if smiling during happy situations and frowning during sad situations change as a function of self-reported emotion intensity or social context (Fridlund et al., 1992). The purpose of this study was to investigate facial muscle activity and self-reported emotion of major depressed and non-depressed patients in response to the social context of happy and sad stimuli. On the basis of previous research, we hypothesize that depressed patients will show reduced and socially disengaged facial expression compared to non-depressed patients. Depressed patients should show reduced facial muscle activity during happy and sad stimuli compared to non-depressed patients. In addition, depressed patients should show a lack of social context differences compared to non-depressed patients in smiling during happy stimuli and frowning during sad stimuli.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
. Results 3.1. Self-reported emotion 3.1.1. Baseline Depressed patients showed significantly reduced happiness compared to non-depressed control subjects (mean±S.D.: 2.91±2.98 vs. 5.82±2.75, t=2.38, P=0.027). No group difference was found for sadness during baseline. 3.1.2. Imagery Happiness showed main effects for emotion (F=279.10, d.f.=1,20, P<0.001) and social context (F=13.50, d.f.=1,20, P=0.002). Happy imagery induced increased happiness ratings compared to sad imagery (mean=6.74±1.77 vs. mean=0.33±0.54). In addition, visualizing social situations induced more happiness than visualizing solitary situations during both happy and sad imagery (mean=3.86±1.02 vs. mean=3.22±1.04). A main effect for emotion (F=239.08, d.f.=1,20, P<0.001) and an emotion by social context interaction (F=8.17, d.f.=1,20, P=0.010) were found for self-reported sadness. Sad imagery induced increased sadness compared to happy imagery (mean=6.64±1.52 and mean=1.42±1.27, respectively). Regarding social context, sadness was significantly increased during sad-social imagery in comparison to sad-solitary imagery (mean=7.23±1.86 vs. mean=6.06±1.73, t=2.70, P=0.013). No social context difference was found for sadness during happy imagery. No other effects or trends emerged. 3.2. Facial muscle activity 3.2.1. Baseline Depressed patients showed reduced EMG-cheek and EMG-brow activity compared to non-depressed patients (mean=0.68±0.16 vs. mean=0.92±0.28, t=2.49, P=0.024 and mean=0.69±0.26 vs. mean=0.92±0.24, t=2.19, P=0.042, respectively). 3.2.2. Imagery A 2×2×2 ANOVA for EMG-cheek activity revealed main effects for group (F=6.29, d.f.=1,20, P=0.021), emotion (F=15.15, d.f.=1,20, P=0.001), social context (F=6.85, d.f.=1,20, P=0.017), and a social context by emotion interaction (F=6.27, d.f.=1,20, P=0.021). Cheek activity was reduced in depressed patients (mean=0.78±0.20) compared to non-depressed control subjects (mean=1.00±0.20). Happy imagery induced more EMG-cheek activity than sad imagery (mean=0.94±0.23 vs. mean=0.84±0.18). In addition, cheek activity was increased during happy-social imagery compared to happy-solitary imagery (mean=1.02±0.29 vs. mean=0.87±0.21, t=2.91, P=0.008) whereas no social context differences were found during sad-solitary vs. sad-social imagery. Happy-social imagery induced more EMG-cheek activity than sad-solitary imagery (mean=1.02±0.29 vs. mean=0.86±0.21, t=4.06, P=0.001) and sad-social imagery (mean=0.81±0.23, t=3.81, P=0.001). Although only a non-significant trend, happy-solitary imagery induced more EMG-cheek activity than sad-social imagery (mean=0.87±0.23 vs. mean=0.81±0.23, t=2.07, P=0.051). No differences were found between happy-solitary and sad-solitary imagery. Adjusting social context differences in EMG-cheek activity during happy imagery by using social context differences in self-reported happiness as a covariate showed a main effect for group (F=4.56, d.f.=1,19, P=0.046) and a non-significant trend for social context (F=4.07, d.f.=1,19, P=0.058). Fig. 1 shows EMG-cheek activity and self-reported happiness. Smiling as measured by EMG-cheek activity and self-reported happiness. Bars ... Fig. 1. Smiling as measured by EMG-cheek activity and self-reported happiness. Bars represent S.D. values. Figure options EMG-brow activity during sad imagery revealed a significant emotion effect (F=22.86, d.f.=1,20, P<0.001) and a non-significant trend for group (F=3.74, d.f.=1,20, P=0.067). No other effects or trends occurred. Sad imagery induced increased EMG-brow activity compared to happy imagery (mean=1.09±0.27 vs. mean=0.88±0.28). Brow activity was reduced in depressed (mean=0.88±0.26) compared to non-depressed patients (mean=1.09±0.26). An ANCOVA for EMG-brow activity during sad imagery using social context differences in self-reported sadness as a covariate revealed a non-significant trend for group (F=4.32, d.f.=1,19, P=0.051). No other effects emerged. Fig. 2 shows EMG-brow activity and self-reported sadness. Frowning as measured by EMG-brow activity and self-reported sadness. Bars ... Fig. 2. Frowning as measured by EMG-brow activity and self-reported sadness. Bars represent S.D. values.