تجزیه و تحلیل پردازش حالت چهره در بزرگسالان با عملکرد بالا مبتلا به اوتیسم
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37683||2007||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9603 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Neuropsychologia, Volume 45, Issue 4, 2007, Pages 685–695
Abstract It is unclear whether individuals with autism are impaired at recognizing basic facial expressions, and whether, if any impairment exists, it applies to expression processing in general, or to certain expressions, in particular. To evaluate these alternatives, we adopted a fine-grained analysis of facial expression processing in autism. Specifically, we used the ‘facial expression megamix’ paradigm [Young, A. W., Rowland, D., Calder, A. J, Etcoff, N. L., Seth, A., & Perrett, D. I. (1997). Facial expression megamix: Tests of dimensional and category accounts of emotion recognition Cognition and Emotion, 14, 39–60] in which adults with autism and a typically developing comparison group performed a six alternative forced-choice response to morphs of all possible combinations of the six basic expressions identified by Ekman [Ekman, P. (1972). Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion. In J. K. Cole (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation: vol. 1971, (pp. 207–283). Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press] (happiness, sadness, disgust, anger, fear and surprise). Clear differences were evident between the two groups, most obviously in the recognition of fear, but also in the recognition of disgust and happiness. A second experiment demonstrated that individuals with autism are able to discriminate between different emotional images and suggests that low-level perceptual difficulties do not underlie the difficulties with emotion recognition.
Introduction Autism is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impairments in communication and social cognition, and repetitive, stereotyped behaviors. Facial expression processing has been the focus of much attention in the condition (e.g. Adolphs, Sears, & Piven, 2001; Ashwin, Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, O’Riordan, & Bullmore, in press; Critchley et al., 2000; Davies, Bishop, Manstead, & Tantam, 1994; Teunisse and de Gelder, 1994 and Teunisse and de Gelder, 2001). This is for multiple reasons, including the difficulties with face identity processing seen in autism (e.g. Behrmann, Thomas, & Humphreys, 2006) and possible links with theory of mind impairments (Baron-Cohen et al., 1994), with the obvious ramifications for social skills. Surprisingly, however, given the social implications of understanding facial expression, it is still unclear whether individuals with autism are impaired at recognizing basic facial expressions, although they do appear to have problems with more subtle or cognitive expressions such as arrogance or flirtatiousness (e.g. Baron-Cohen, Jolliffe, Martimore, & Robertson, 1997; Kleinman, Marciano, & Ault, 2001). While many studies have revealed difficulties with basic expressions (e.g. Celani, Battachi, & Arcidiacono, 1999; Davies et al., 1994, Hobson, 1986a and Hobson, 1986b; Hobson, Ouston, & Lee, 1988; Langdell, 1978), others have not (e.g. Adolphs et al., 2001 and Baron-Cohen et al., 1997; Grossman, Klin, Carter, & Volkmar, 2000; Ogai et al., 2003; Ozonoff, Pennington, & Rogers, 1990; Prior, Dahlstrom, & Squires, 1990; Spezio, Adolphs, Hurley, & Piven, 2007; Teunisse and de Gelder, 1994; Volkmar, Sparrow, Rende, & Cohen, 1989). Even if a deficit in facial expression processing exists in autism, it is not evident whether all expressions are implicated and if so, whether this is to an equal extent. Whereas one study reported relative impairments in the recognition of anger and disgust (Ellis & Leafhead, 1996), another found that a group of children with autism were impaired at recognizing surprise, but not happiness or sadness (disgust, fear and anger were not tested) (Baron-Cohen, Spitz, & Cross, 1993). Yet other studies report greater difficulties in the recognition of fear than the other five basic expressions although some difficulties with anger were also noted (Howard et al., 2000; Giola & Brosgole, 1988; Pelphrey et al., 2002). Teunisse and de Gelder (2001) found that performance on a morphed continuum between happiness and sadness was at the level of typically developing individuals but that recognition of the other two continua tested (anger–sadness and anger–fear) was impaired. One reason for the lack of consensus amongst these findings may be that, in high-functioning individuals with autism, impairments in processing basic expressions may be relatively subtle, if present, and not all studies succeed in uncovering the subtle deficits. Additionally, some studies do not contain comparison groups (e.g. Adolphs et al., 2001), not all previous studies have matched appropriately the autism and comparison groups (e.g. Teunisse & de Gelder, 2001), and some of these studies have not measured verbal ability or IQ in their autism group. It is also the case that some studies test facial emotion processing in children (e.g. Davies et al., 1994), while other studies test it in adults (e.g. Adolphs et al., 2001), and it is possible that development might play a role in the discrepant findings. The aim of the present studies was to uncover possible subtle impairments, which may exist in facial expression processing in adults with autism using morphed expressions and a well-matched comparison group. Although a previous study has used morphed expressions to investigate facial expression processing in high-functioning adolescents with autism, only three different morphed continua – anger–sadness, anger–fear and happiness–sadness – were used in a two alternative forced-choice paradigm (Teunisse & de Gelder, 2001). To allow for a full exploration of expression processing and a much more complete test of the questions at issue, we compare the performance of individuals with autism and well-matched controls on a fifteen morphed expression continua and a six alternative, rather than a two alternative, forced choice. We also investigated whether there were relationships between the degree of any impairment and the severity of autism symptoms in the individual and, finally, we consider possible explanations for the pattern of impairment we uncover
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی