تغییر فضایی در فرآیندهای مولد فقر: کودکان فقر در ایالات متحده
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37724||2012||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9620 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Social Science Research, Volume 41, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 146–159
This study builds on research demonstrating that sub-regions within the United States have different processes that abet poverty and that child poverty is spatially differentiated. We focus on the social attributes of the local area to assess what the geographic place represents in terms of social characteristics, namely racial/ethnic composition and economic structure, and to resolve apparent inconsistencies in poverty research. Using spatial regime and spatial error regression techniques to analyze county census data, we examine spatial differentiation in the relationships that generate child poverty. Our approach addresses the conceptual and technical aspects of spatial inequality. Results show that local-area processes are at play with implications for more nuanced theoretical models and anti-poverty policies that consider systematic differences in factors contributing to child poverty according to the racial/ethnic and economic contexts.
The United States has one of the highest average incomes in the industrialized world and, strikingly, it has one of the highest rates of poverty (Iceland, 2006 and Smeeding et al., 2001). Although poverty declined in recent decades, falling from 13.7% in 1969 to 11.3% in 1999 (Dalaker, 2001 and US Census Bureau, 1993), recent estimates show that poverty is on the rise with nearly 43 million Americans (14.3%) living in poverty in 2009 (American Community Survey, 2010). Of particular concern, economic vulnerability is especially acute for the youngest population. Poverty among America’s youth has been increasing since the 1990s while, in contrast, it has been steadily declining among the older population. Despite the nation’s wealth, 16% of its children were living in poverty in 1999 and the proportion increased to 20% of children (23.2% of children less than 5 years-old) in 2009. Also of concern is the spatial inequality of poverty. Some regions are particularly disadvantaged, most notably the South with a regional poverty rate higher than 16% in 2009.