از مقایسه تا سیاست های اجتماعی جهانی: درس هایی برای پزشکان توسعه ای از مطالعه جهانی یونیسف بر روی فقر کودکان و نابرابری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37727||2012||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9099 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Children and Youth Services Review, Volume 34, Issue 3, March 2012, Pages 499–508
How can one assess whether social policies in one context can be effective in another? What standardized framework of inputs, outputs, results and outcomes allows one to make such global comparisons? There is resistance to creating such a standardized mechanism; in order to ensure national specificities – cultural, socio-economic and political contexts – are considered. This paper attempts to look at the responsiveness of global social policy to addressing multidimensional child poverty, through the experience of UNICEF's Global Study on Child Poverty and Disparities. The Global study spans 50 + countries in Africa, Asia, CEE/CIS, Latin America and the Middle East. The purpose of this initiative is to highlight the notion of child poverty as a distinct problem and to sensitize policymakers as to how to most effectively address it. This paper looks at why UNICEF launched this effort; what concerns, considerations and principles have shaped it; and analyses the challenges of operationalizing the child poverty concepts, measures and responses across five continents. Finally, it examines what lessons the first phase of this global effort can offer to the international development community and laborers in comparative social policy.
Few practices resist pressure for international standardization today more effectively than social policy. A taxi driver can order a pizza margherita with a Coke in Bangkok, New York, Beijing, Budapest, La Paz or Nairobi; but the public health insurance or childcare benefits on offer in these places are radically different. There is increasing global convergence on the key ingredients of sound macroeconomic policy and good governance; but the notion of good social policy resists both globalization and homogenisation. The wisdom that, besides political and socioeconomic contexts, culture, value and social network systems will retain a powerful role in shaping social policy gave birth to the study of comparative social policy decades ago. Today, related and ‘soft’ approaches to standard setting and lessons sharing across national borders continue; for example, through the ‘open coordination method’ of the European Union or through hearings by the US Congress and Senate.1