فقر محله، استفاده از پارک ها، و فعالیت بدنی مبتنی بر پارک در شهرستان های جنوب کالیفرنیا
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37735||2012||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7944 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Social Science & Medicine, Volume 75, Issue 12, December 2012, Pages 2317–2325
A rich literature indicates that individuals of lower socio-economic status engage in less leisure time physical activity than individuals of higher socio-economic status. However, the source of the difference is believed to be, in part, due to differential access to resources that support physical activity. However, it has not been shown as to whether equal access to parks can mitigate differences in leisure time physical activity. Using systematic direct observation, we quantified physical activity in neighborhood parks in a large Southern California city located in areas with high, medium, and a low percentage of households in poverty. We documented how neighborhood parks are managed and programmed and also interviewed both a sample of park users and a random sample of households within a mile radius of the parks. We found that parks are used less in high-poverty areas compared to medium- and low-poverty area parks, even after accounting for differences in size, staffing, and programming. The strongest correlates of park use were the number of part time staff, the number of supervised and organized programs, and knowing the park staff. Perceptions of safety were not relevant to park use among those interviewed in the park, however it had a small relationship with reported frequency of park use among local residents. Among park users, time spent watching electronic media was negatively correlated with the frequency of visiting the park. Future research should test whether increasing park staffing and programming will lead to increased park use in high-poverty neighborhoods.
Among a wide variety of health risk factors, including diet, obesity, smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes, the largest attributable fraction for all-cause mortality is due to physical inactivity, accounting for 16% of all-cause deaths (Blair, 2009). This is somewhat surprising, because compared with most other health behaviors, physical activity requires minimal financial cost, since people can walk, jog, or run in the streets and recreate in public parks without charge. Nonetheless, many studies document substantial disparities in leisure time physical activity between low- and high income groups (Boone-Heinonen et al., 2010; Cerin & Leslie, 2008; Drenowatz et al., 2010; Kamphuis et al., 2009; McNeill, Kreuter et al., 2006; McNeill, Wyrwich et al., 2006; Wilson et al., 2004).