تبعیض نژادی قومی/مسکونی، فقر محله و بیومارکرهای ادراری رژیم غذایی در بزرگسالان شهر نیویورک
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37751||2014||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5640 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Social Science & Medicine, Volume 122, December 2014, Pages 122–129
Consuming less sodium and more potassium are components of a healthy diet and reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Racial/ethnic segregation and poverty are both associated with dietary habits, but data linking dietary intake to neighborhood characteristics are limited, particularly in Hispanic and Asian American ethnic enclaves. This study presents relationships between neighborhood-level segregation, poverty and biologic indicators of sodium and potassium consumption. Data were from the 2010 Heart Follow-Up Study, a cross-sectional health survey, which included 24-h urine collections and self-reported health status (n = 1656). Black, Hispanic, and Asian segregated areas and neighborhood poverty were defined for aggregated zip-code areas. Multivariable models assessed the association between neighborhood segregation and poverty and sodium and potassium intake, after adjustment for individual-level covariates. In unadjusted models, potassium intake (a marker of fruit and vegetable consumption) was lower in high-versus low-Hispanic segregated neighborhoods, and the sodium–potassium ratio was higher in high-versus low black and Hispanic segregated neighborhoods, and in high-versus low-poverty neighborhoods; the sodium–potassium ratio was lower in high-versus low Asian segregated neighborhoods. Segregation and poverty were not independently associated with nutrition biomarkers after adjustment for demographics and for each other; however, practical consideration of neighborhood race/ethnic composition may be useful to understand differences in consumption.
Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in both the U.S. overall and New York City (NYC) (Hoyert, 2012). Having a healthy diet, and in particular, consuming less sodium and more potassium through fewer packaged and processed foods and more fruits and vegetables, is an important component to reducing the risk of chronic disease, particularly for preventing hypertension and other cardiovascular-disease related morbidity and mortality (Aburto et al., 2013, Appel et al., 2006, Boeing et al., 2013 and Yang et al., 2011). Previously published studies have documented disparities in access to healthy foods, with the lowest access being observed in neighborhoods of high deprivation or high minority composition (Franco et al., 2008, Kamphuis et al., 2006 and Larson et al., 2009). Racial/ethnic segregation is a compelling area of interest with regard to dietary intake because of the dual influences of access to healthy food and cultural patterns of food shopping, preparation and consumption. Among blacks, segregation often has negative effects on diet due to limited access to healthy options such as fresh fruits and vegetables (Morland et al., 2002 and Franco et al., 2008), and a high density of fast food establishments (which have high sodium and caloric content) in neighborhoods where many blacks reside (Kwate et al., 2009). Segregation in Hispanic and Asian American populations is more likely due to the formation of ‘ethnic enclaves’ or ‘barrios’ (Hispanic) rather than racial discrimination (Acevedo-Garcia et al., 2003). Living in a Hispanic or Asian American ethnic enclave, has been shown to be associated with healthier dietary patterns (Park et al., 2011), diets lower in fat and processed food, and better access to healthy foods (Osypuk et al., 2009). However, predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods have also been shown to have a higher proportion of fast food restaurants compared to mixed race neighborhoods (Galvez et al., 2008). Studies of ethnic enclaves and nutrition are few in number.