تاثیر حالات عاطفی صورت بر روی تشخیص چهره افراد 3-5 ساله
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37793||2011||18 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9636 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Cognitive Development, Volume 26, Issue 3, July–September 2011, Pages 230–247
Abstract Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds’ recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression remained neutral (Experiment 1) or varied between immediate and delayed tests: from neutral to smile and anger (Experiment 2), from smile to neutral and anger (Experiment 3, condition 1), or from anger to neutral and smile (Experiment 3, condition 2). In all experiments, immediate face recognition was not influenced by emotional expression for either age group. Delayed face recognition was most accurate for faces in identical emotional expression. For 5-year-olds, delayed face recognition (with varied emotional expression) was not influenced by which emotional expression had been displayed during the immediate recognition test. Among 3-year-olds, accuracy decreased when facial expressions varied from neutral to smile and anger but was constant when facial expressions varied from anger or smile to neutral, smile or anger. Three-year-olds’ recognition was facilitated when faces initially displayed smile or anger expressions, but this was not the case for 5-year-olds. Results thus indicate a developmental progression in face identity recognition with varied emotional expressions between ages 3 and 5.
1. Introduction Young children are able to recognize faces and assess their familiarity (Brace et al., 2001 and Bruce et al., 2000). Recognition of facial identity, however, is only one of several crucial face processing skills. When assessing facial familiarity, one must simultaneously process social information such as emotional expression, and the question arises how young children cope with varying emotional expressions while recognizing facial identity. Until now, most studies of younger children's ability to generalize identity across varying emotional expressions have focused on immediate recognition of an unfamiliar face presented once. These investigations have shown mixed results, from recognition at chance level in 3-year-olds (Ellis, 1992) and 6–8-year-olds (Mondloch, Geldart, Maurer, & Le Grand, 2003) to significant face recognition ability in 3–5-year-olds (Bruce et al., 2000 and Norbeck, 1981). The present study investigated the influence of emotional expressions on both immediate face recognition in identical emotional expressions and delayed recognition across different emotions. In particular, we examined the extent to which smile, anger and neutral facial expressions influence immediate recognition of target faces and whether variations in emotional expressions influence face recognition after delays of 10 min and one week. 1.1. Models of processing identity and social information from faces The interrelation of the processing of identity and the processing of emotional expression has received substantial attention in adult face recognition research (Baudouin et al., 2000, Bruce and Young, 1986, D’Argembeau et al., 2003, Ganel and Goshen-Gottstein, 2004, Haxby et al., 2000, Schweinberger and Soukup, 1998 and Vuilleumier and Pourtois, 2007). Bruce and Young (1986) postulate a face processing model in which specialized modules for the processing of face identity, emotional expression, and other social information operate independently. Initial visual encoding of an unfamiliar face is assumed to result in viewer-centered descriptions, so-called face recognition units, which form the basis for analyses of emotional expression (Bruce & Young, 1986). Haxby et al., 2000 and Haxby et al., 2002 broadly define two brain systems for face processing, with one system responsible for analyzing invariant but changeable visual aspects underlying face identity recognition, and the other responsible for processing non-visual aspects such as emotions or speech. Unlike Bruce and Young (1986)Haxby et al., 2000 and Haxby et al., 2002 assume that the different system components interact and modulate each other, resulting in a percept composed of identity and of changeable visual and non-visual facial aspects. Both of these models were proposed for adults, and whether they can be applied to children or predict the extent to which emotional expression influences children's recognition of facial identity is unknown. We next summarize studies of children's ability to recognize facial identity with constant and varying emotional expressions. 1.2. Children's ability to recognize facial identity Immediate facial recognition for faces that do not vary in emotional expression is well documented in infancy and in children aged 5–6 and older. Even newborns recognize familiar and unfamiliar faces (Pascalis and de Schonen, 1994 and Turati et al., 2006), and face recognition develops rapidly toward the end of the first year (de Haan et al., 2001, de Schonen and Mathivet, 1990, Nelson, 2003 and Quinn et al., 2002). Numerous studies have shown a significant increase in face recognition between ages 5 and 12, and therefore indicate slow maturation of face processing skills (Bruce et al., 2000, Carey, 1992, Carey et al., 1980, Chung and Thompson, 1995, Diamond and Carey, 1977, Ellis and Flin, 1990, Freire and Lee, 2001 and Mondloch et al., 2002). However, Crookes and McKone (2009) argue that improved recognition performance can be fully explained by general cognitive development rather than by face-specific perceptual development. Development of face recognition ability during early childhood has received less attention. Only minimal face recognition abilities have been attributed to children under the age of 5 (Carey, 1992 and Ellis, 1992). However, recent investigations contradict these results. Brace et al. (2001) studied face recognition in 2–11-year-olds viewing a storybook and found that 2–4-year-olds recognized unfamiliar faces above chance level and 5–6-year-olds did so at nearly ceiling level. In a study by Mondloch, Leis and Maurer (2006), 4-year-olds recognized faces altered in shape and in coloring of a single facial feature, but not when spacing between the faces’ internal features, such as the eyes, was changed. Brace et al. (2001) and Mondloch et al. (2006) demonstrate that, apart from this insensitivity to the spacing of facial features, children as young as 2 can distinguish and recognize unfamiliar faces when presented with identical emotional expressions. Long-term face recognition in young children has been rarely investigated. We are aware of only one study, by Ellis and Flin (1990), who compared 7- and 10-year-olds’ immediate face recognition to their memory for faces after one week and found no age-related differences in delayed recognition. Long-term recognition of faces has yet to be investigated in even younger children, among whom memory undergoes crucial development. 1.3. Children's ability to recognize facial identity with varying emotional expressions The ability to recognize emotional expressions in unfamiliar faces is well documented from infancy to middle childhood. At the end of the first year, infants can discriminate among several emotional expressions (Bornstein and Arterberry, 2003, Nelson, 2001, Striano et al., 2002 and Young-Browne et al., 1977). At age 3, children accurately identify happy, sad, angry and fearful emotional expressions by naming or pointing, with greatest accuracy for the happy expression (Strand, Cerna, & Downs, 2008). Bruce et al. (2000) reported that 6–7-year-olds identified all four emotional facial expressions nearly without error. Thus, in the age range relevant to our study, children can not only discriminate but also identify basic emotional expressions. Few studies have investigated how varying emotional expressions influence children's identity recognition. Ellis (1992) applied a simultaneous matching task in which faces varied by emotion (surprise, smile and grimace), pose or paraphernalia. When faces varied by emotional expression, 3-year-olds’ face recognition was at chance level, whereas 5-year-olds achieved high accuracy and 8–11-year-olds performed at ceiling. Also using a simultaneous matching task, Mondloch et al. (2003) tested 6–10-year-olds’ and adults’ face recognition across varied emotional expressions. All faces were shown with inner features only. Target faces displayed surprise, happiness, disgust, or neutral expressions and were to be compared with three faces differing in emotional expression, one of which had the same identity as the target. Six- and eight-year-olds failed to recognize facial identity when emotional expression varied, and even adults’ were prone to error. Using a similar design, but without masking the outer facial features, Norbeck (1981) investigated 3- and 5-year-olds’ ability to generalize identity across anger, happiness, sadness, or fear expressions and found substantial recognition ability in 3-year-olds and significant improvement to age 5. Investigating 4–10-year-olds’ ability to match identity in varied emotional expression, Bruce et al. (2000) presented a target face with neutral expression together with two test faces (one of which shared the target's identity) displaying positive or negative expressions. Four- and five-year-olds were able to recognize faces across varied emotions when target and distractor faces were dissimilar, but they had difficulties when they were similar. Five- to six-year-olds showed an overall increase in accuracy. In summary, findings on children's ability to recognize facial identity despite transformation in emotional expression are mixed and require further investigation in the age range examined here. Although the above-mentioned studies did not compare the effects of positive vs. negative emotional expressions on face recognition, two recent studies (Kinzler and Shutts, 2008 and LoBue, 2009) have postulated a processing advantage in children for anger expression compared to neutral and positive emotions. LoBue (2009) found faster detection of angry than neutral or positive faces in a crowd, and Kinzler and Shutts (2008) reported a recognition advantage for faces of “harmful” rather than “helpful” persons. Both results were attributed to children's superior processing of threatening faces, an ability thought to be deeply rooted in cognitive evolution (Vaish, Grossmann, & Woodward, 2008). However, because LoBue (2009) only analyzed speed of emotion recognition and Kinzler and Shutts (2008) conveyed threat or “harmfulness” through semantic information and not facial expression, whether positive and negative facial expressions have different effects on face recognition in young children remains unknown. We therefore compared the influence of anger, smile and neutral expressions on face recognition. 1.4. The present study We investigated (1) the extent to which 3- and 5-year-olds’ learning and immediate recognition of previously unfamiliar faces is influenced by emotional expressions and (2) children's ability to generalize identity across varying emotional expressions. To do so, we repeatedly presented target faces mixed with distractor faces during an immediate recognition test, after 10 min, and after one week. Experiment 1 served as a baseline, with face recognition assessed using only neutral facial expressions during immediate and delayed recognition. We varied facial expressions between experiments and between immediate and delayed tests in Experiment 2 and Experiment 3. In Experiment 2, face recognition was tested with neutral expression during the immediate test and with smile and anger expression after 10 min and after one week. In Experiment 3, half of the children were shown smiling faces during immediate recognition and neutral and angry faces during delayed recognition; the other half were shown angry faces during immediate recognition and neutral and smiling faces during delayed recognition.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی