امتیاز بندی عاطفی دوره های تکیه گاهی در زندگی و ارتباط آنها با بهزیستی ذهنی در میان بازماندگان هولوکاست
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|37984||2015||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 43, Issue 3, August 2007, Pages 495–506
Abstract This work examines happiness and suffering ratings of anchor periods (i.e., outstandingly meaningful life periods) among Holocaust survivors and comparison groups, and the relations of these ratings to present subjective well-being (SWB). The study included 360 participants, 141 of which were Holocaust survivors. Results showed that Holocaust survivors reported significantly lower happiness in their anchor periods than the comparison groups. Happiness and suffering in Holocaust periods (i.e., anchor periods during the Holocaust), when juxtaposed with happiness and suffering in non-Holocaust anchor periods (i.e., anchor periods which occurred before or after the Holocaust), significantly related to the survivors’ present happiness and suffering. The results support an experience-specific view of emotionality as a factor in a lifelong coping with past traumatic events.
1. Introduction Life stories are usually considered to be of fundamental significance for the self, emotions, and the experience of personhood (Bluck and Habermas, 2001 and McAdams, 1993). A life story is often exposed in an answer given to a broad question such as “tell me your story of life”. However, one can also assess life stories by concentrating on specific periods or episodes in life (Singer & Bluck, 2001). Accordingly, Shmotkin, 2005 and Shmotkin et al., 2006 offered the concept of “anchor periods,” which are the personally perceived most meaningful periods in one’s life (the happiest period, the worst period, etc.) delimited by a time frame (i.e., having a distinct starting point and ending point) and possibly include several events within that frame. There are numerous aspects of examining the anchor periods, such as themes, structures, etc. This study addresses emotional recollections of the anchor periods among Holocaust survivors and their relation to subjective well-being (SWB), which refers to the overall evaluation that people make about the quality of their lives (Shmotkin, 2005). SWB has been traditionally viewed as composed of affective (happiness) and cognitive (satisfaction with life) dimensions (Andrews & Withey, 1976). Happiness is defined as a balance between positive affect and negative affect, conceived as separate structures (Bradburne, 1969). Although often used to refer to SWB at large, the concept of happiness retains its predominantly emotional nature and can thus be contrasted with typical negative emotions such as suffering (Shmotkin, 2005 and Shmotkin et al., 2006). As for the emotional content of the anchor periods, it should be noted that while the emotional content of narratives dwells on the vital role of emotions in memories (Jan-Erick and Vilkko, 1996 and Singer and Salovey, 1993) it also combines emotions of past events or periods with current self-appraisals. Studies have pointed to Holocaust survivors’ difficulties in emotional expressions (Danieli, 1984 and Kav-Venaki et al., 1985). For example, Schnieder, Spiesel, and Malachi (1992) argued that, in general, Holocaust survivors reveal greater restraint in speaking out or sharing their feelings and in Nadler and Ben-Shushan’s (1989) study survivors rated themselves as more emotionally closed than a comparison group. Some authors claimed that these patterns of more restricted emotional expression among survivors may have their costs. Accordingly, Nadler and Ben-Shushan (1989) found that emotional difficulties among Holocaust survivors related to high frequency of psychosomatic complaints, and Yehuda et al. (1997) found a positive correlation between alexithymia (i.e., a difficulty in identifying, experiencing and reporting emotions) and the presence of PTSD. While considering other, non-Holocaust, traumatic events, Esterling, Antoni, Kumar, and Schneiderman (1990) as well as Petrie, Booth, Pennebaker, Davison, and Thomas (1995) found that emotional expressions may assist the coping process among patients diagnosed with severe illnesses. From an opposite point of view, some authors (Danieli, 1980 and Kaminer and Lavie, 1991; Krystal, 1981) suggested that in cases of an extreme traumatic experience such as the Holocaust, isolation and denial (i.e., restriction of emotionality) are effective coping and adaptational mechanisms. Dasberg (1987) combined these two opposed views and claimed that denial may be effective up to a certain point, but as the time passes it becomes less effective and harder to maintain. In contrast to studies which usually consider emotionality in general, we believe that emotional expression of traumatized individuals should be investigated in a more differential framework, which distinguishes between traumatic and non-traumatic periods in life, and interrelates positive emotions (happiness) and negative emotions (suffering) into broader configurational emotionality. Following previous findings (see Shmotkin, 2003, for review), we hypothesized that, on the whole, Holocaust survivors would show lower happiness ratings attributed to their anchor periods in life than comparison groups. Based on the organizing role of anchor periods in life narratives, we also hypothesized that, among Holocaust survivors, those who have higher ratings of happiness attributed to their non-Holocaust anchor periods (i.e., anchor periods which occurred before or after the Holocaust) would show higher levels of present SWB than those with lower ratings of happiness attributed to those periods. Lastly, in view of the need for a broader examination of emotional expression following trauma, and also in line with Shmotkin’s (2005) conceptualization of SWB as acting in face of a “hostile-world scenario” (i.e., one’s image of actual or potential threats to one’s life or integrity), this study explores perceived happiness in juxtaposition with a counterpart perception of suffering. We expected that both happiness and suffering would be necessary to contour emotionality of anchor periods in life as well as to indicate SWB, particularly among traumatized people.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
3. Results Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was conducted in order to test Hypothesis 1 which predicted that Holocaust survivors would show lower ratings of happiness in the anchor periods than the comparison groups. As there were some personal characteristics differences among the groups, participants’ age, education and health were used as covariates. Results of this analysis are presented in Table 2. Table 2. Multivariate analyses of covariance comparing between Holocaust survivors and the comparison group for positive emotional climax and general mean of happiness and suffering across anchor periods Holocaust survivors Comparison groups F A Included the Holocaust (n = 101) B Excluded the Holocaust (n = 31) C Born in Israel (n = 69) D Born in Europe (n = 97) E Asia/Africa (n = 59) Happiness climax M = 9.28 M = 9.39 M = 9.49 M = 9.34 M = 9.39 F(4,358) = 1.25 SD = 1.12 SD = 0.76 SD = 0.80 SD = 0.94 SD = 0.76 Mean of happiness M = 5.64 M = 5.95 M = 6.92 M = 6.42 M = 6.26 F(4,358) = 8.86 ⁎⁎, a SD = 1.28 SD = 1.25 SD = 1.36 SD = 1.32 SD = 1.35 Mean of suffering M = 4.96 M = 5.31 M = 4.17 M = 4.41 M = 4.87 F(4,358) = 2.45 ⁎, b SD = 1.63 SD = 1.56 SD = 2.01 SD = 1.57 SD = 1.84 Note: Participants’ age, education, and health are used as covariates. Wilk’s Lambda = 0.896, p < 0.001. a Pairwise comparisons (p < .05) revealed that C > A, B, D, E; A < D, E. b Pairwise comparisons (p < 0.05) revealed that A, B > C. ⁎ p < 0.05. ⁎⁎ p < 0.01. Table options As presented in Table 2, Hypothesis 1 was partially supported. Holocaust survivors who included the Holocaust in their anchor periods had a significantly lower score of general mean of happiness than the European and Israeli comparison groups. However, the difference in positive emotional climax between the groups did not reach significance. Further analyses revealed that when present happiness is concerned (rather than happiness relating to the anchor periods) the Holocaust survivors who excluded the Holocaust from the anchor periods had the lowest present happiness (M = 5.62, SD = 2.76) than all other groups (F(4,348) = 3.43, p = 0.009) excluding the European-born group (M = 6.73, SD = 2.49), while none of the other groups differed from each other. Finally, no significant differences were found among any of the groups in their present suffering ratings (F(4,348) = 1.02, ns). Hypothesis 2, which predicted that among the Holocaust survivors who included the Holocaust in their anchor periods, higher happiness ratings in non-Holocaust anchor periods would be related to higher levels of present SWB, was examined by Pearson correlations as presented in Table 3. Table 3. Pearson correlations between the emotional ratings in non-Holocaust periods and indicators of subjective well-being among Holocaust survivors SWB indicator Mean of happiness ratings in non-Holocaust periods Mean of suffering ratings in non-Holocaust periods Satisfaction with life 0.23⁎ (n = 106) −0.21⁎⁎ (n = 104) Present happiness 0.05 (n = 97) −0.06 (n = 96) Present suffering 0.04 (n = 96) 0.27⁎ (n = 96) ⁎ p < 0.05. ⁎⁎ p < 0.01. Table options Table 3 shows that there was a significant positive correlation between the mean of happiness ratings in non-Holocaust periods and satisfaction with life, which is in concordance with Hypothesis 2. It was also found that the mean of suffering ratings in non-Holocaust periods was negatively related to life satisfaction and positively related to present suffering. However, the correlations of happiness ratings in non-Holocaust periods with present happiness and present suffering were nearly zero and not significant. Since it is possible that the results obtained by the correlation matrix reflect an overall correlation between emotional intensities and SWB with no regard to the periods’ time of occurrence (i.e., during or not during the Holocaust), an additional analysis was held. This time the levels of happiness and suffering in periods which were placed during the Holocaust were used as covariates in addition to age and gender, thus resulting in a cleaner examination of the relationship of happiness and suffering in non-Holocaust periods with present SWB. The results of these analyses were similar to those reported in Table 3. The mean of happiness ratings in non-Holocaust periods was positively and significantly correlated with satisfaction with life (r(98) = 0.32, p < 0.005) but not with either present happiness (r(92) = 0.02, ns) or present suffering (r(91) = 0.06, ns). The mean of suffering ratings in non-Holocaust periods was negatively correlated with satisfaction with life (r(96) = − 0.28, p < 0.05), but not with either present happiness (r(92) = 0.07, ns) or present suffering (r(91) = 0.20, ns). This suggests that the relation between the anchor periods’ emotional ratings (both happiness and suffering) and life satisfaction is at least partially due to the placement of the period with respect to the time of the Holocaust. In order to examine the juxtaposition of happiness and suffering in the anchor periods and its relation to present SWB, participants were divided into groups according to the median values of their happiness ratings in Holocaust periods (Mdn = 2), happiness ratings in non-Holocaust periods (Mdn = 7.5), suffering ratings in Holocaust periods (Mdn = 8.5), and finally, suffering ratings in non-Holocaust periods (Mdn = 3.75). This process resulted in four new dichotomous variables, each scored as either Low (lower than the sample’s median) or High (higher than, or equal to, the sample’s median). Throughout these analyses participants’ age, gender, health and years spent under Nazi occupation were used as covariates. Results of these analyses are presented in Table 4 and Table 5. Table 4. Main effects in a multivariate analysis of covariance of subjective well-being according to happiness ratings in Holocaust and non-Holocaust periods SWB indicator Holocaust periodsa F Low happiness (n = 52) High happiness (n = 40) Satisfaction with life M = 4.89 M = 5.01 F(1,82) = 0.28 SD = 1.08 SD = 1.13 Present happiness M = 7.29 M = 6.73 F(1,82) = 3.71 SD = 2.35 SD = 2.90 Present suffering M = 3.60 M = 4.18 F(1,82) = 4.62 ⁎ SD = 2.88 SD = 3.10 Non-Holocaust periodsb Low happiness (n = 41) High happiness (n = 51) Satisfaction with life M = 4.74 M = 5.10 F(1,82) = 3.03 SD = 1.07 SD = 1.10 Present happiness M = 7.24 M = 6.88 F(1,82) = 1.59 SD = 2.29 SD = 2.85 Present suffering M = 3.85 M = 3.84 F(1,82) = 0.53 SD = 2.77 SD = 3.16 Note: N = 92. Participants’ age, gender, health and number of years spent under Nazi occupation were used as covariates. a Wilk’s Lambda(Holocaust) = 0.948, ns. b Wilk’s Lambda(non-Holocaust) = .979, ns. ⁎ p < 0.05. Table options Table 5. Main effects in multivariate analyses of covariance of subjective well-being according to suffering ratings in Holocaust and Non-holocaust periods SWB indicator Holocaust periodsa F Low suffering (n = 44) High suffering (n = 48) Satisfaction with life M = 5.24 M = 4.65 F(1,82) = 2.26 SD = 0.94 SD = 1.17 Present happiness M = 7.52 M = 6.67 F(1,82) = 2.76 SD = 2.39 SD = 2.72 Present suffering M = 3.43 M = 4.33 F(1,82) = .55 SD = 2.94 SD = 3.10 Non-Holocaust periodsb Low suffering (n = 59) High suffering (n = 33) Satisfaction with life M = 4.99 M = 4.81 F(1,82) = .65 SD = 1.07 SD = 1.17 Present happiness M = 7.10 M = 7.03 F(1,82) = .11 SD = 2.58 SD = 2.63 Present suffering M = 3.66 M = 4.33 F(1,82) = 1.45 SD = 3.03 SD = 3.07 Note: N = 92. Participants’ age, gender, health and number of years spent under Nazi occupation were used as covariates. ∗ p < 0.05. a Wilk’s Lambda(Holocaust) = 0.931, ns. b Wilk’s Lambda(non-Holocaust) = 0.914, ns. Table options As presented in Table 4, survivors who had high levels of happiness in their Holocaust periods also reported higher levels of present suffering. Furthermore, the interaction between happiness ratings of Holocaust periods and non-Holocaust periods yielded significant results in regard to the participants’ present suffering ratings (F(1,82) = 4.39, p = 0.049) but not in regard to present happiness (F(1,82) = 2.76, ns) or life satisfaction (F(1,82) = 0.47, ns). This interaction effect is presented in Fig. 1. Interaction between happiness ratings of Holocaust and non-Holocaust periods for ... Fig. 1. Interaction between happiness ratings of Holocaust and non-Holocaust periods for present suffering. Figure options As for suffering in Holocaust and non-Holocaust periods, there were no significant differences between those who rated high levels of suffering and those who rated low levels of suffering during Holocaust or non-Holocaust anchor periods with regard to their life satisfaction, present happiness and present suffering. However, the interaction between suffering ratings of the Holocaust periods and non-Holocaust periods yielded significant results in regard to the participants’ present happiness ratings (F(1,82) = 3.97, p = 0.049) but not in regard to present suffering (F(1,82) = 1.86, ns) or life satisfaction (F(1,82) = 0.13, ns). This interaction effect is presented in Fig. 2. Interaction between suffering ratings of Holocaust and non-Holocaust periods for ... Fig. 2. Interaction between suffering ratings of Holocaust and non-Holocaust periods for present happiness. Figure options As Fig. 1 reveals, participants who reported low levels of happiness during the Holocaust periods along with high levels of happiness in non-Holocaust periods reported lower levels of present suffering, whereas those who reported high levels of happiness during the Holocaust along with high levels of happiness in non-Holocaust periods reported the highest levels of present suffering. As presented in Fig. 2, participants who reported low levels of suffering during the Holocaust periods along with high levels of suffering in non-Holocaust periods reported the highest levels of happiness, whereas those who reported high levels of suffering in both the Holocaust and non-holocaust periods reported the lowest levels of present happiness. In summary, the analyses reveal that stronger emotions (both positive and negative) in non-Holocaust periods were positively related to SWB (i.e., high present happiness and low present suffering) only when the emotional intensities (both positive and negative) during the Holocaust periods were low.