تاثیر بحران بر استخدام و مدل تحرک اجتماعی دانش آموختگان دانشگاه رومانیایی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3816||2012||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4983 کلمه|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Procedia Economics and Finance, Volume 3, 2012, Pages 315–324
In less developed countries, the main concern is represented not that much by external mobility of workers, but by the migration of those with higher education, the so-called “brain-drain” due to the associated loss of economic potential. The capacity of the labour market from the origin country to retain through quality jobs the new generations of graduates may represent a deterrent for employment and career mobility. In the present paper we shall analyse the motivation for migration of Romanian youths in the last years of their licence and master studies based on processing a survey developed in the period May-June 2012 among the economic higher education graduates. The comparative disadvantages regarding development level, labour remuneration and attractive jobs, as well as the structural deficit between the supply of the educational system on training fields and specialisations and the demand of the labour market motivates the propensity to international mobility for labour, even for professions requiring an adjustment on the labour market of the country of destination, by training on the job or additional education.
The flows, intensity and profile of mobility for highly-skilled labour force become autonomous from with average or low training mobility and is relatively indifferent as propensity against the conjectural socio-economic events. Still, it is highly dependent on the legislative and institutional limits or the policies promoted by the country of destination, and on the development level. The determinative variables of highly-skilled labour force migration define the support factors for sustaining the propensity to external mobility, and the characteristics of the countries of destination model the direction flows and their intensity. It should be mentioned that a model of incentives is built for mobility, different to the one of the poorly trained migrant workers, strong potential factors such as the creation of social networks being insignificant in the case of experts and weakly significant for students from abroad. If we refer to the generic category of persons of 15 years of age and over, highly-skilled that migrate we should take into account two large groups of individuals: Graduates of higher education who opt for international mobility with the purpose of employment and who feed the group of immigrant population present on the labour market from the destination countries; Students studing abroad, in the broad understanding of the term, in the Bologna system being included master- and doctor-students, who manifest a particular propensity for employment abroad, due to the partial employment model practiced by the majority, as solution for supplementing financial resources required for education and ensuring living-standard conditions during the period of studies. If we refer to the propensity to migration of highly-skilled, in the countries of origin, then we include yet other two groups: Persons with higher education present on the labour market from the countries of origin, but who are searching for a job abroad; Students, master- and doctor students in their stages of training, partially employed, full-time employed, or unemployed, who show their interest and are searching for alternatives for employment outside the country of origin, after finalising studies.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
These outcomes, with the restriction that they are not the result of a survey on a representative sample, allow for highlighting the multiple facets of labour mobility and self restrictions increasingly stronger that youths assume in making their decision to migrate. They consider mobility as an opportunity for efficient employment and are ready, to their vast majority to use these opportunities and assume risks of temporary employment or over-qualification. The remaining restrictions are financial and social, they prefer to leave in small groups than alone and are less confident in the robust turnaround chances which they regard as less friendly for young graduates. On the other hand, for the last 10 years, the labour force numbers in Romania who found an employment form abroad increased more than twice, from over 2.7 million persons aged 15 and over, and the share of thosewith higher education increased quicker than the dynamics on total migrants. Moreover, during the crisis, experts already employed in deficit fields even in Romania, physicians, specialised medical staff, teachers, researchers, left for medium- and long periods of time to work abroad. Youths within the educational system pursue the mobility model of those giving up employment in Romania. To these are added also the increasing numbers of youths finalising tertiary studies abroad and who return to an increasingly lower share, the labour market from Romania being incapable of ensuring quality jobs for them.