خوش بینی / بدبینی و سبک پردازش اطلاعات:آیا تاثیرات آن در پیش بینی تنظیم روانی قابل تشخیص است؟
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|38205||2001||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 31, Issue 4, 5 September 2001, Pages 555–562
Abstract This study examined the extent to which optimism and pessimism predicted variance in depressive symptoms and life satisfaction beyond what was accounted for by individual differences in perceived information-processing styles (Burns, L. R., & D'Zurilla, T. J. (1999). Individual differences in perceived information-processing styles in stress and coping situations: development and validation of the Perceived Modes of Processing Inventory. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 23, 345–371) in a sample of 402 college students. Consistent with expectations, results indicated that modes of information processing accounted for a significant amount of the variance in both adjustment measures. Moreover, optimism and pessimism accounted for a significant amount of additional unique variance in adjustment. Taken together, these findings indicate that optimism and pessimism reflect cognitive processes that are not redundant with information-processing styles.
1. Introduction In recent years, the concepts of optimism and pessimism have generated a great deal of research interest in the areas of personality, social, and clinical psychology (Chang, 2001). According to Scheier and Carver (1985), optimism and pessimism, defined as generalized positive and negative outcome expectancies, represent relatively stable individual difference variables that promote or abate psychological well-being. Specifically, these investigators have argued that optimism is associated with and leads to securing positive outcomes, whereas pessimism is associated with and leads to incurring negative outcomes (Scheier and Carver, 1985, Scheier and Carver, 1992 and Scheier et al., 2001). Consistent with this view, studies have shown that greater optimism is associated with greater psychological adjustment and with less maladjustment (Chang, 1998, Chang et al., 1994, Chang et al., 1997, Marshall et al., 1992 and Mroczek et al., 1993). In contrast, for example, greater pessimism has been found to be associated with less life satisfaction and greater depressive symptoms (e.g. Chang et al., 1994 and Chang et al., 1997). Yet, despite these findings, it remains important to distinguish the influences of optimism and pessimism on adjustment over the influences of other related variables. Recently, Burns and D'Zurilla (1999) have developed the Perceived Modes of Processing Inventory (PMPI) to assess for individual differences in information-processing styles related to stressful encounters. The PMPI is composed of three relatively distinct dimensions which is based on Epstein, 1990 and Epstein et al., 1996) cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST). According to the CEST model, the self is composed of at least two distinguishable systems, a rational and an experiential system. Consistent with this model, Burns and D'Zurilla (1999) found support for different ways of processing information that corresponded to these systems. Specifically, these investigators identified a rational information-processing style and an experiential information-processing style. According to Burns and D'Zurilla (1999), rational information-processing style involves the use of logical reasoning, creative thinking, and the use of problem solving methods to cope with stressful situations, whereas experiential processing style involves the use of feelings and emotions to guide coping behavior. In addition to these two dimensions, Burns and D'Zurilla (1999) also found evidence for a third information-processing style that was automatic and related to, but not redundant with, both rational and experiential information-processing styles. In contrast to the other two styles, automatic processing style involves the use of past coping experiences which can result in fast and efficient coping responses. Consistent with the view that these cognitive styles are important determinants of adjustment, Burns and D'Zurilla (1999) found significant associations between the different PMPI scales and measures of psychological adjustment, including life satisfaction and depressive symptoms. Therefore, given that these modes of information-processing styles reflect cognitive processes which may overlap with those tapped by optimism and pessimism, and that both optimism/pessimism and modes of information-processing styles have been found to be significantly associated with similar indices of adjustment, it would be important to determine the extent to which the influences of optimism and pessimism on adjustment can be distinguished from the influences of information-processing styles on adjustment.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
4. Results 4.1. Relations between optimism, pessimism, information-processing styles, and psychological adjustment Zero-order correlations, means, and standard deviations for all study measures for the present sample are presented in Table 1. As the table shows, optimism and pessimism were not strongly correlated with modes of information processing. For example, optimism was significantly related to rational and automatic information-processing styles, but not to experiential information-processing style. In contrast, pessimism was significantly related to experiential information-processing style, but not to the other two information-processing styles. Also, optimism and pessimism had significant associations with both adjustment measures. However, only automatic information-processing style was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Taken together, these correlational findings indicate that optimism and pessimism are not redundant with modes of information-processing styles. Table 1. Correlations, means, and standard deviations for all study measuresa Measures 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1. LOT-R-OPT – 2. LOT-R-PESS −0.57 – 3. PMPI-R 0.18*** −0.08 – 4. PMPI-E −0.00 0.12* −0.22*** – 5. PMPI-A 0.15** 0.01 0.12* 0.40*** – 6. BDI −0.36*** 0.40*** −0.03 0.09 −0.13* – 7. SWLS 0.43*** −0.44*** 0.05 0.02 0.15** −0.57*** –btq M 7.36 5.08 37.26 32.41 30.18 8.67 23.75 SD 2.35 2.64 8.53 7.16 5.79 6.98 6.58 a n=402. LOT-R-OPT, revised Life Orientation Test — Optimism scale; LOT-R-PESS, revised Life Orientation Test — Pessimism scale; PMPI-R, Perceived Modes of Processing Inventory — Rational Information-Processing Style; PMPI-E, Perceived Modes of Processing Inventory — Experiential Information-Processing Style; PMPI-A, Perceived Modes of Processing Inventory — Automatic Information-Processing Style; BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; SWLS, Satisfaction With Life Scale. ∗ P< 0.05. ∗∗ P< 0.01. ∗∗∗ P< 0.001. Table options 4.2. Optimism, pessimism, and information-processing styles as predictors of psychological adjustment To examine the predictive utility of optimism and pessimism as measured by the LOT-R over modes of information processing in accounting for variance in the present measures of psychological adjustment, we conducted a series of hierarchical regression analyses for each of the two adjustment measures. For each of the two regression equations, scores on the PMPI were entered as a set in the First Step, followed by optimism and pessimism scores as a set in the Second Step. Results of these analyses for predicting variance in depressive symptoms and life satisfaction are presented in Table 2. Table 2. Hierarchical regression analyses showing amount of variance in psychological adjustment accounted for by information-processing styles and optimism/pessimisma Adjustment Measures β R R2 ΔR2 d.f. F Depressive symptoms Modes of information processing 0.20 0.04 1,400 5.58*** Experiential 0.18*** Automatic −0.20*** Rational 0.04 Optimism/pessimism 0.46 0.21 0.17 1,399 43.38*** Optimism −0.18** Pessimism 0.29*** Life satisfaction Modes of information processing 0.16 0.02 1,400 3.30* Experiential 0.06 Automatic 0.16** Rational 0.02 Optimism/pessimism 0.50 0.25 0.23 1,399 60.33*** Optimism 0.24*** Pessimism −0.31*** a n=402. ∗ P< 0.05. ∗∗ P< 0.01. ∗∗∗ P< 0.001. Table options As Table 2 shows, modes of information processing significantly accounted for 4% of the variance in depressive symptoms. As a set, it also accounted for a significant 2% of the variance in life satisfaction. Across both regressions, automatic information processing emerged as the strongest, if not the sole significant predictor. The table also shows that, however, optimism and pessimism accounted for an additional 21% of the variance in depressive symptoms, and an additional 25% of the variance in life satisfaction, beyond what was accounted for by modes of information processing. Noteworthy, compared to optimism, pessimism emerged as the stronger predictor of adjustment. Taken together, these findings not only indicate that optimism and pessimism are not redundant with cognitive processes reflected in modes of information processing, but that optimism and pessimism may be more robust predictors of psychological adjustment.