دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 38209
عنوان فارسی مقاله

خوش بینی، بدبینی، عاطفه، و سازگاری روانشناختی در ایالات متحده و کره: یک تست از یک مدل میانجیگری

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
38209 2003 14 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.
عنوان انگلیسی
Optimism, pessimism, affectivity, and psychological adjustment in US and Korea: a test of a mediation model
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 34, Issue 7, May 2003, Pages 1195–1208

کلمات کلیدی
خوش بینی - بدبینی - عاطفه - تنظیم روانی - فرهنگ
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله خوش بینی، بدبینی، عاطفه، و سازگاری روانشناختی در ایالات متحده و کره: یک تست از یک مدل میانجیگری

چکیده انگلیسی

Abstract Previous research has indicated that cognitive and affective variables play an important role in models of psychological adjustment. However, the examination of such variables across different cultural groups has remained a neglected issue. Accordingly, this study assessed the role of outcome expectancies (optimism and pessimism) and affectivity (positive and negative affect) as predictors of psychological adjustment (life satisfaction and depressive symptoms) in a sample of 294 South Korean and 320 European American college students. Consistent with the mapping of self-criticism and self-enhancement to Easterners and Westerners, respectively, Koreans compared to European Americans were found to report greater negative affectivity and depressive symptoms. In contrast, European Americans compared to Koreans were found to report greater positive affectivity and life satisfaction. Moreover, results of path analyses examining a model of affectivity as a mediator of the link between outcome expectancies and psychological adjustment provided additional evidence for cultural differences. Implications of the present findings for understanding psychological adjustment in Easterners versus Westerners are discussed.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

. Results 5.1. Relations between optimism, pessimism, affectivity, and psychological adjustment in Easterners and Westerners Zero-order correlations for all the study measures are presented in Table 1 for Koreans (outside of parentheses) and European Americans (inside parentheses). As the table shows, the expected pattern of associations was quite similar between Koreans and European Americans. For example, OPT scores were positively and significantly associated with SWLS scores for both Koreans (r=0.42) and for European Americans (r=0.40). However, of the 15 pairs of correlations between the two cultural groups, four were found to be significantly different. Specifically, although PA and NA scores were moderately and negatively correlated with each other for European Americans (r=−0.29), the association was not significant for Koreans (r=0.02), z=3.35, P<0.001. In addition, significantly weaker negative associations emerged for Koreans compared to European Americans between OPT and PESS scores (rs=−0.41 vs.−0.56, respectively; z=2.45, P<0.01), OPT and NA scores (rs=−0.25 vs.−0.42, respectively; z=2.40, P<0.01), and between PESS and SWLS scores (rs=−0.34 vs.−0.48, respectively; z=2.09, P<0.05). Hence, the nomological net of associations between the present set of variables was not identical between Koreans and European Americans. Table 1. Correlations and internal reliabilities for all study measures Measures 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. OPT – 2. PESS −0.41*** – (−0.56***) 3. PA 0.27*** −00.35*** – (0.40***) (−0.46***) 4. NA −0.25*** 0.34*** 0.02 – (−0.42***) (0.43***) (−0.29***) 5. BDI −0.34*** 0.41*** −0.31*** 0.52*** – (−0.39***) (0.45***) (−0.36***) (0.44***) 6. SWLS 0.42*** −0.34*** 0.45*** −0.28*** −0.41*** – (0.40***) (−0.48***) (0.51***) (−0.38***) (−0.50***) α 0.53 0.64 0.84 0.80 0.88 0.82 (0.69) (0.80) (0.86) (0.81) (0.90) (0.91) For Koreans, N=294. For European Americans, N=320. Correlations outside of parentheses are for Koreans. Correlations in parentheses are for North Americans. OPT=Optimism scale of the revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R); PESS=Pessimism scale of the LOT-R; PA=Positive Affect scale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS); NA=Negative Affect scale of the PANAS; BDI=Beck Depression Inventory; SWLS=Satisfaction With Life Scale. ∗∗∗ P<0.001. Table options 5.2. Cultural differences in optimism, pessimism, affectivity, and psychological adjustment between Easterners and Westerners Table 2presents the results of t tests comparing cultural differences in optimism, pessimism, affectivity, and psychological adjustment between Koreans and European Americans. As this table shows, Koreans reported significantly lower PESS scores than European Americans (Ms=4.24 vs. 5.08, respectively), but no significant group difference emerged on OPT scores (Ms=8.19 vs. 8.00, respectively). The former result was quite unexpected given previous findings obtained with Asians (e.g. Lee & Seligman, 1997) and Asian Americans (e.g. Chang, 1996 and Chang, 2002). As expected, Koreans compared to European Americans reported significantly greater scores on NA (Ms=24.34 vs. 22.37, respectively) and on BDI (Ms=11.15 vs. 7.22, respectively) however. Also, European Americans compared to Koreans reported significantly greater scores on PA (Ms=36.67 vs. 29.28, respectively) and on SWLS (25.57 vs. 19.88, respectively). Hence, these latter sets of findings were consistent with the mapping of self-criticism in the East and self-enhancement in the West. Table 2. Cultural differences in study measuresa Criterion Cultural group Koreans European Americans M SD M SD t(1, 612) OPT 8.19 2.14 8.00 2.21 1.11 PESS 4.24 2.19 5.08 2.78 −4.19*** PA 29.28 6.71 36.67 5.98 −14.50*** NA 24.34 6.01 22.37 5.99 4.06*** BDI 11.15 7.75 7.22 7.42 6.49*** SWLS 19.88 2.22 25.57 5.70 −12.36*** a For Koreans, N=294. For European Americans, N=320. OPT=Optimism scale of the revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R); PESS=Pessimism scale of the LOT-R; PA=Positive Affect scale of the Positive And Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS); NA=Negative Affect scale of the PANAS; BDI=Beck Depression Inventory; SWLS=Satisfaction With Life Scale. ∗∗∗ P<0.001. Table options 5.3. Is affectivity a mediator of the link between outcome expectancies and psychological adjustment in Easterners and Westerners? Because the present correlation results for Koreans and European Americans indicate that affectivity may mediate the link between outcome expectancies and psychological adjustment, we next examined a mediation model in which the hypothesized influence of optimism and pessimism on psychological adjustment was believed to be partially mediated by positive and negative affectivity. Following the general guidelines of Baron and Kenny (1986), to establish evidence for the proposed mediation model, it would be necessary to meet three conditions. First, outcome expectancies (optimism and pessimism) must be shown to be significantly associated with affectivity (positive and negative affectivity). Second, affectivity must be shown to be associated with each of the two measures of psychological adjustment in question (life satisfaction and depression). Third, the significant association between outcome expectancies and psychological adjustment should become reduced when controlling for the influence of affectivity. Complete mediation would be indicated if the associations between outcome expectancies and affectivity, and between affectivity and adjustment were significant, but the previously significant association between outcome expectancies and adjustment became nonsignificant after controlling for affectivity. Results of conducting these analyses (controlling for covariation between the two adjustment measures) for Koreans are presented in Fig. 2. As the figure shows, both optimism and pessimism were significant predictors of both positive and negative affectivity. In turn, each dimension of affectivity was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms and life satisfaction after controlling for outcome expectancies. Positive and negative affectivity mediated the influence of optimism and pessimism on both depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. As the figure indicates, the links between pessimism and life satisfaction and between optimism and depressive symptoms were completely mediated by affectivity. However, it is worth noting that even after controlling for the influences of affectivity, optimism continued to be a significant predictor of life satisfaction, and that pessimism continued to be a significant predictor of depressive symptoms. The results of conducting similar path analyses for European Americans are presented in Fig. 3. As this figure shows, the link between optimism and psychological adjustment was completely mediated by negative affectivity in predicting depressive symptoms and by positive affectivity in predicting life satisfaction. Noteworthy, even after controlling for the influences of affectivity, pessimism continued to be an important predictor of both depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Results of the path analyses delineating those paths found to be significant for ... Fig. 2. Results of the path analyses delineating those paths found to be significant for Koreans (N=294). All numbers represent standardized beta weights. *P<0.05. **P<0.01. ***P<0.001. Figure options Results of the path analyses delineating those paths found to be significant for ... Fig. 3. Results of the path analyses delineating those paths found to be significant for European Americans (N=320). All numbers represent standardized beta weights. *P<0.05. **P<0.01. ***P<0.001. Figure options Overall, these path-analytic results examining a mediation model of psychological adjustment between Koreans and European Americans indicate that the influences of expectancies and affectivity on psychological adjustment are important and complex. That is, although the resulting models for Koreans and European Americans provide support for a model of affectivity as a mediator of the link between outcome expectancies and adjustment, notable differences between the two path models emerged.

خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.