مقابله با محیط استخدام ناامن : نقش های متفاوت جهت گیری های شغلی گوناگون و بدون مرز
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3824||2012||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5680 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 80, Issue 2, April 2012, Pages 308–316
In this paper, we utilize a sample of working adults (N = 362) in the context of the recent economic recession to explore the coping mechanisms associated with different career attitudes and their subsequent impact on important individual work outcomes. Results of structural equation modeling (SEM) demonstrated that boundaryless mindset and self-directed protean career attitudes were differentially correlated with external support seeking, active coping, and identity awareness, which in turn were differentially correlated with individual work outcomes of job search behavior, performance, career success, and psychological well-being. Evidence for both full and partial mediation within the model tested is presented, as well as the potential implications of these findings and suggested avenues for future research.
Recently the United States and many other countries experienced the worst economic recession in several decades. In regard to workers seeking to cope with such difficult situations we propose that employees' protean and boundaryless career orientations will lead them to engage in differential coping behaviors, which will in turn have varying impacts on important work outcomes. While protean and boundaryless perspectives have been increasingly researched in relationship to career success (De Vos & Soens, 2006) and individual differences (Briscoe et al., 2006 and Segers et al., 2008), such studies have typically taken place in more stable and predictable circumstances. The widespread uncertainty resulting from the recessionary context in regards to employment provided a unique opportunity to study a widespread phenomenon that (due to potential increased stress levels, De Witte, 2005) tests the efficacy of protean and boundaryless career attitudes and associated coping mechanisms. In a context in which one has so little control over the outcomes related to job stability, we explore five functional outcomes that could potentially flow from (and in spite of) periods of employment instability: job search behavior, job performance, subjective career success, and psychological well-being. In turn, we explore how these outcomes might be influenced by external relationship seeking, active coping, and identity awareness. We argue that these three career development skills are themselves driven by a protean self-directed attitude and/or boundaryless mindset. We propose that self-directed and boundaryless career attitudes lead to career behaviors that foster positive career outcomes during the economic downturns (as they have been shown to do in stable economic situations). These relationships are illustrated in Fig. 1 and discussed in detail below.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The results of confirmatory factor analysis [χ2(459, N = 362) = 1013.34; χ2/df = 2.21; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = .92; Bentler-Bonnet Non-normed Fit Index (NNFI) = .90; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .06; standardized root mean-square residual (SRMR) = .06] using the measurement model met Hu and Bentler's (1999) conservative two-index presentation criteria for good model fit. Though the chi-square statistic was significant, which can be expected with larger sample sizes ( Bagozzi and Yi, 1988 and Hair et al., 2006), the normed chi-square fell below the recommended 3.0 maximum (Kline, 2005). All items loaded significantly on their corresponding constructs. The nine-factor model was compared to an eight-factor model [χ2(458, N = 362) = 1444.29; χ2/df = 3.15; CFI = .85; NNFI = .83; RMSEA = .08; SRMR = .08] in which the two career orientations were combined into a single factor. The nine-factor model showed significantly better fit (Δχ2 = 430.95; p < .0001) than the eight-factor model, thus providing some evidence of discriminant validity for the career orientation measures. Results of structural equation modeling (SEM) demonstrated that the two career orientations were differentially correlated with the three coping mechanisms external support-seeking, active coping, and identity awareness. These coping mechanisms were then differentially correlated with the four individual work outcomes. The hypothesized model was tested first. Wald statistics identified the non-significant paths as those that should be removed for improved model fit, and none of the univariate Lagrange multipliers for adding paths was significant. The hypothesized, fully-mediated model was then compared to a model showing partial mediation by freeing all of the direct paths from the two career orientations to the four individual work outcomes. The non-significant direct paths were then removed (based on Wald statistics), and the resulting final model [χ2 (482, N = 362) = 1109.71; NNFI = .90; CFI = .91; RMSEA = .06; SRMR = .09; χ2/df = 2.30] showed improved fit over the hypothesized model. Because this third model was more parsimonious than the partially mediated model and fit the data at least equally as well, it was retained as the final model (Kline, 2005, p. 146). Comparison fit statistics for the models tested are shown in Table 2. Standardized coefficients are shown in Fig. 2.Examination of the paths in the final model (depicted in Fig. 2) indicated that both career orientations were correlated with active coping (H1 and H2), but that only boundaryless mindset was correlated with external support-seeking (Hypothesis 1a) and only self-directed protean was correlated with identity awareness (Hypothesis 2b). The three coping mechanisms were then differentially related to the four outcome variables. External support-seeking was positively correlated with job-search behavior (Hypothesis 3a). Active coping was positively correlated with performance (Hypothesis 4a) and career success (Hypothesis 4b; p < .10) and negatively related to psychological well-being (Hypothesis 4c). Identity awareness was positively correlated with psychological well-being (Hypothesis 5c). In addition to indirect effects, self-directed protean attitudes were also directly correlated with three of the outcome variables: performance, career success, and psychological well-being. Given the non-significant paths from external support seeking to psychological well-being and from identity awareness to performance and career success, H3, Hypotheses 3b, 5a, and 5b were not supported. The results suggest full mediation for the effects of boundaryless mindset on the outcome variables through the mediators of external support seeking and active coping. The significant direct paths from self-directed protean to performance, career success, and psychological well-being suggest partial mediation through the mediators' active coping and identity awareness for the effects of this career orientation.