دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 38268
عنوان فارسی مقاله

افراد خوشبین: این می تواند بدتر از این باشد. افراد بدبین: این می توانست بهتر از این باشد: خوش بینی جهت مند و بدبینی و تفکر امر خلاف واقع

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
38268 2015 4 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.
عنوان انگلیسی
Optimists: It could have been worse; Pessimists: It could have been better: Dispositional optimism and pessimism and counterfactual thinking
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 86, November 2015, Pages 122–125

کلمات کلیدی
تفکر خلاف - خوش بینی - بدبینی - عاطفه - شناخت - تئوری نورم
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله افراد خوشبین: این می تواند بدتر از این باشد. افراد بدبین: این می توانست بهتر از این باشد: خوش بینی جهت مند و بدبینی و تفکر امر خلاف واقع

چکیده انگلیسی

Abstract Optimism and pessimism are cognitive expectancies regarding future events, whereas counterfactual thinking is the cognitive process of imagining alternatives to events that occurred in the past. The purpose of this study was to conceptualize dispositional optimism and pessimism within the context of norm theory and examine relationships between dispositional optimism and pessimism and counterfactual thinking. Undergraduate students (N = 833) completed measures of counterfactual thinking and optimism and pessimism. After controlling for the effects of positive and negative affect, it was found that downward counterfactual thinking (imagining how things could have been worse) was associated with optimism and that upward styles of counterfactual thinking (imagining how things could have been better) were associated with pessimism. These results suggest that thinking about past events is consistent with expectations about the future.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

. Results Preliminary analyses found no violation of assumptions. Correlations between all variables are displayed in Table 1. Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted using the four counterfactual thinking styles to predict optimism and pessimism, while controlling for positive and negative affect. The first hierarchical multiple regression found that the nonreferent downward style (B = .150, β = .188, p < .001, 95% CI [.099, .201]) was the only statistically significant predictor of optimism after controlling for positive and negative affect, F (6, 826) = 43.662, p < .001, R = .491, R2 = .241, adjusted R2 = .235, and R2 change = .032 ( Table 2). A second multiple regression found that the nonreferent upward style (B = .136, β = .177, p < .001, 95% CI [.065, .207]) and the self-referent upward style (B = .077, β = .096, p < .041, 95% CI [.003, .152]) were the only significant predictors of pessimism after controlling for positive and negative affect, F (6, 826) = 29.159, R = .418, R2 = .175, adjusted R2 = .169, R2 change = .069 ( Table 3). Table 1. Correlations, mean, and standard deviations for variables. Nonreferent downward Other referent upward Self-referent upward Nonreferent upward Optimism Pessimism Positive affect Negative affect M (SD) Nonreferent downward 1 .230⁎⁎ .271⁎⁎ .197⁎⁎ .232⁎⁎ .036 .225⁎⁎ − .005 12.80 (3.330) Other referent upward – 1 .460⁎⁎ .483⁎⁎ − .120⁎⁎ .242⁎⁎ − .011 .300⁎⁎ 11.64 (3.976) Self-referent upward – – 1 .715⁎⁎ − .105⁎⁎ .308⁎⁎ − .014 .340⁎⁎ 12.14 (3.494) Nonreferent upward – – – 1 − .142⁎⁎ .343⁎⁎ − .045 .373⁎⁎ 12.56 (3.678) Optimism – – – – 1 − .395⁎⁎ .368⁎⁎ − .301⁎⁎ 10.31 (2.651) Pessimism – – – – – 1 − .146⁎⁎ .301⁎⁎ 8.72 (2.821) Positive affect – – – – – – 1 − .083⁎ 17.42 (3.40) Negative affect – – – – – – – 1 12.22 (3.459) ⁎ p < .05. ⁎⁎ p < .01. Table options Table 2. Linear regression for optimism after controlling for affect dependent variable: optimism. Step 1 Step 2 CI SE B (β) B (β) Nonreferent downward .150 (.188)⁎⁎ (.099, .201) .026 Other referent upward − .043 (− .065) (− .090, .004) .024 Self-referent upward − .014 (− .018) (− .081, .053) .034 Nonreferent upward − .023 (− .032) (− .087, .041) .033 Positive affect .269 (.345) .236 (.303) (.222, .317) .024 Negative affect − .209 (− .272) − .182 (− .237) (− .255, − .162) .024 Note: R2 = .241, adjusted R2 = .235, R2Δ = .032. ⁎⁎ p < .001. Table options Table 3. Linear regression for pessimism after controlling for affect dependent variable: pessimism. Step 1 Step 2 CI SE B (β) B (β) Nonreferent downward − .009 (− .011) (− .066, .048) .029 Other referent upward .043 (.061) (− .009, .096) .027 Self-referent upward .077 (.096)⁎ (.003, .152) .038 Nonreferent upward .136 (.177)⁎⁎ (.065, .207) .036 Positive affect − .102 (− .122) − .099 (− .120) (− .155, − .048) .027 Negative affect .237 (.291) .142 (.174) (.185, .290) .027 Note: R2 = .175, Adjusted R2 = .169, R2Δ = .069. ⁎ p < .05. ⁎⁎ p < .001.

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