اهمالکاری به عنوان یک خود ناتوانسازی برای مردان و زنان: یک استراتژی وظیفه اجتناب در محیط آزمایشگاهی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|38275||2000||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Research in Personality, Volume 34, Issue 1, March 2000, Pages 73–83
Abstract Procrastination (the lack of time spent practicing before an upcoming target task) may be conceptualized as a behavioral self-handicap. In two studies, participants (Study 1, 40 women and 19 men; Study 2, 48 women and 40 men) rated themselves on a measure of chronic procrastination in a general testing session. When participants reported individually to a laboratory, they were told that their performance on a math task would be measured. However, participants were allowed to practice the task or engage in other, fun activities (e.g., playing with a video game or working on a puzzle) for 15 min; hence, “procrastinate” at practicing. Participants in the first study spent an average of 9 of 15 min (60% of the time) procrastinating by working on all activities except practicing math problems. In the second study, where the exact same math task was identified as a fun game, chronic procrastinators did not practice less than nonprocrastinators, suggesting that procrastination (lack of practice) occurs as a behavioral self-handicap. In both studies, when the task was identified as an important evaluation of cognitive skills, chronic procrastinators compared to nonprocrastinators spent more time on the fun, alternative tasks and less time preparing for the evaluation. Procrastination by lack of practicing on a task occurred only when the task was identified as evaluative, not when the identical task was labeled as a fun or pleasurable activity.