خود ناتوان سازی در ورزش های رقابتی: نفوذ آب و هوا انگیزشی، خودکارآمدی و اهمیت ادراک شده
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|38280||2005||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5733 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 6, Issue 5, September 2005, Pages 539–550
Abstract Objectives To examine the influence of perceptions of the motivational climate, self-efficacy, and perceived importance on athletes' claimed situational self-handicaps in a competitive sport setting. Perceptions of a task involving climate and self-efficacy were expected to be negatively related and perceptions of an ego-involving climate to be positively related to situational self-handicapping. Design Given the centrality of perceived ability in the self-handicapping literature, basic tenets derived from achievement goal theory provided the rationale for the present cross-sectional field study. Methods Male 70 and 70 female elite collegiate golfers completed a questionnaire prior to participating in a prestigious national golf tournament (M age=20.61; SD=1.52) assessing claimed situational self-handicaps in the week prior to the tournament, perceptions of the team motivational climate, perceived event importance, and self-efficacy. Results Preliminary analyses revealed no significant gender differences in regard to the perceived importance of the event or situational claimed self-handicaps. Participants who perceived the event to be of low personal importance reported significantly more claimed self-handicaps during the week prior to the tournament than high importance individuals. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed perceptions of a task-involving motivational climate, self-efficacy, and perceived event importance to be negatively related to claimed self-handicaps. Conclusions The findings of the present study suggest that in addition to enhancing self-efficacy, coaches should increase the salience of task-involving cues in the athletic context to attenuate the situational claimed self-handicaps of elite collegiate athletes.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Results Descriptive statistics Cronbach alpha coefficients (Cronbach, 1951) for all measures were calculated. All subscales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency based on Nunnally's (1978) criterion of 0.70 for the psychological domain. Descriptive statistics and Cronbach alpha coefficients for all subscales and variables are provided in Table 1 for the total sample and separately for male and female participants. Table 1. Internal consistencies, means, and standard deviations for all sub-scales for males, females, and the overall sample Measures αα Overall (N=140) Males (N=70) Females (N=70) M SD M SD M SD Age (years) 20.6 1.52 21.0 1.51 20.3 1.45 Self-efficacy 0.94 74.9 12.1 75.8 13.7 74.0 10.3 Situational claimed self-handicapping 0.85 2.60 0.87 2.56 0.86 2.64 0.88 PMSCQ-2 Task-involving perceptions 0.90 5.57 0.86 5.39 0.91 5.74 0.77 Ego-involving perceptions 0.85 3.55 0.95 3.77 0.85 3.32 1.00 Perceived importance 8.03 1.35 8.06 1.50 8.00 1.18 Table options Gender differences in perceived event importance As hypothesized, the findings from an independent sample t-test showed that male (M=8.06, SD=1.5) and female (M=8.00; SD=1.18) participants did not significantly differ in perceived event importance. Univariate analysis of variance and effect size The results of a two-factor (gender × event importance) univariate analysis of variance revealed no significant main effect for gender or significant interaction effect between gender and perceived importance in situational claimed self-handicapping. However, a significant main effect for event importance [F(1, 136)=7.99, p<0.01] in explaining situational claimed self-handicapping did emerge. Examination of the group means revealed that participants who perceived the event to be of low personal importance reported significantly more situational claimed self-handicaps than high importance individuals (low importance M=3.21, SD=1.07; high importance M=2.53, SD=0.82). The effects size (ES) for tournament importance between the two groups was calculated (M1−M2/SDPooled) to examine the magnitude of the statistical finding. Due to the unequal sample sizes, the pooled standard deviation of the comparison groups was used as the measure of group variability ( Hedges, 1981). An ES of 0.8 for tournament importance emerged. Consistent with the standards advocated by Cohen (1988) for the social and behavioral sciences, an ES of 0.8 was considered meaningful and large. In contrast to previous research that has excluded those participants who did not report the event to be of importance ( Hausenblas & Carron, 1996), these participants were retained in the present study and perceived importance included in all subsequent analyses. It is important to note, however, that although the magnitude of the effect size was large, the mean for the low importance group was marginally below the mid-point of the situational claimed self-handicapping scale. Correlation Analyses The bivariate correlations for the variables of interest are displayed in Table 2. A significant positive relationship was revealed between the perceptions of an ego-involving motivational climate and self-handicapping (r=0.19, p<0.01). As expected, significant negative relationships emerged between self-handicapping and perceptions of a task-involving motivational climate (r=−0.23, p<0.01) and self-efficacy (r=−0.29, p<0.001), respectively. A significant negative relationship also emerged between perceived event importance and self-handicapping (r=−0.24, p<0.001). Table 2. Bivariate correlations for the variables of interest (N=140) Variables (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Situational claimed self-handicapping (1) 1.00 Task involving motivational climate (2) −0.23a 1.00 Ego involving motivational climate (3) 0.19b −0.49a 1.00 Perceived event importance (4) −0.24a 0.05 −0.11 1.00 Self-efficacy (5) −0.29a 0.12 −0.01 0.13 1.00 a p<0.01. b p<0.05. Table options Hierarchical multiple regression analysis Similar to self-efficacy, perceived event importance was conceptualized as a proximal motive for situational claimed self-handicaps and was, therefore, entered at step one in the regression analysis. The final hierarchical multiple regression equation is displayed in Table 3. As hypothesized, perceptions of a task-involving motivational climate and self-efficacy were significant predictors of situational claimed self-handicaps. In addition, perceived event importance emerged as a significant predictor of situational claimed self-handicapping in the final regression equation, [F (3,136)=8.48, p<0.001]. Examination of the standardized beta coefficients revealed that all three variables were negatively related to self-handicapping. Perceptions of an ego-involving climate and the interaction of the ego-involving climate and self-efficacy did not emerge as significant predictors of self-handicapping in the final regression equation. Table 3. Final hierarchical multiple regression analysis showing variance accounted for in situational claimed self-handicapping by perceptions of the motivational climate and self-efficacy Predictor Standardized beta coefficient R2 change Total R2 F change (1, 136) p-Value Self-efficacy −0.24 0.001 Perceived event importance −0.19 0.12 9.64 0.05 Task involving climate −0.19 0.04 0.16 5.52 0.05