محرومیت از بیماری در اسکیزوفرنی به عنوان اختلال درون اندیشی، درک از خود و بینش
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|38441||2014||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6213 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Schizophrenia Research, Volume 152, Issue 1, January 2014, Pages 89–96
Background A substantial proportion of schizophrenia patients deny aspects of their illness to others, which may indicate a deeper disturbance of ‘insight’ and a self-reflection deficit. The present study used a ‘levels-of-processing’ mnemonic paradigm to examine whether such patients engage in particularly brief and shallow self-reflection during mental illness-related self-evaluation. Methods 26 schizophrenia patients with either an overall acceptance or denial of their illness and 25 healthy controls made timed decisions about the self-descriptiveness, other-person-descriptiveness and phonological properties of mental illness traits, negative traits and positive traits, before completing surprise tests of retrieval for these traits. Results The acceptance patients and denial patients were particularly slow in their mental illness-related self-evaluation, indicating that they both found this exercise particularly difficult. Both patient groups displayed intact recognition but particularly reduced recall for self-evaluated traits in general, possibly indicating poor organisational processing during self-reflection. Lower recall for self-evaluated mental illness traits significantly correlated with higher denial of illness and higher illness-severity. Whilst explicit and implicit measures of self-perception corresponded in the healthy controls (who displayed an intact positive > negative ‘self-positivity bias’) and acceptance patients (who displayed a reduced self-positivity bias), the denial patients' self-positivity bias was explicitly intact but implicitly reduced. Conclusions Schizophrenia patients, regardless of their illness-attitudes, have a particular deficit in recalling new self-related information that worsens with increasing denial of illness. This deficit may contribute towards rigid self-perception and disturbed self-awareness and insight in patients with denial of illness.
A disturbance of self-awareness has long been viewed as a core deficit of schizophrenia. For example, it has been argued that an over-awareness of one's normally subconscious perceptions and thoughts forms the basis of hallucinations, delusions and incoherent speech (Frith, 1979), and that an under-awareness of one's intentions to move, think and imagine can result in delusions of control, delusions of thought insertion and hallucinations, respectively (Frith, 1992). Yet these disturbances of self-awareness do not fully account for the formation of such psychotic symptoms. Along with the experience of failing to feel control for self-initiated activity, and its resulting attribution to an external agent, there must arguably be the concurrent evaluation that such erroneous perceptions and beliefs are veridical, and not the result of abnormal self-functioning ( Bedford, 2010). Thus, a problem of self-evaluation during the experience of psychotic symptoms represents an important way in which self-awareness can be disturbed in schizophrenia.