تاثیر ویژگی های نوجوان و والدین بر روی سطح بزهکاری و افسردگی نوجوانان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|38549||2004||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 36, Issue 1, January 2004, Pages 173–185
Abstract Using a cross-sectional design, we examined the effects of adolescent and parental characteristics on depression and delinquency among a sample of Australian high school students. The sample comprised 276 students (median age=15 years) and 274 biological parents of these students. The characteristics measured included adolescent reports of their personality and perceptions of parental bonding as well as parental reports of their own parenting styles and personality. As expected, depression and delinquency scores were significantly correlated, although the significant predictors of these outcome measures were found to be quite distinct. Adolescent personality scores were the strongest predictors of the outcome measures, although fathers' personality and parenting styles were also found to be implicated in adolescent adjustment. These results are discussed with reference to previous work in this area.
Introduction To what extent do self-reported parental and adolescent characteristics co-determine adolescent levels of delinquency and depression? Is one set of characteristics more influential than the other in shaping behaviour? Although many studies have examined those adolescent characteristics (e.g. adolescent personality, perceptions of family functioning, etc.) associated with adolescent adjustment, very few have simultaneously studied self-reported parental characteristics. The present study will therefore examine the joint influence of parental and adolescent personality traits and reports of parenting styles on adolescent levels of behavioural and emotional adjustment. Although not necessarily a time of “storm and stress” (Arnett, 1999), it would appear that the teenage years are quite volatile. This is evidenced by the fact that some young people are prone to engage in a range of problem behaviours such as delinquency with some also experiencing emotional problems, including depression (Heaven, 2001 and Noller & Callan, 1991). Reports of the incidence of youth depression vary widely, it being suggested by some scholars that major depressive disorder affects just over 3% of teenagers (Garrison, Waller, Cuffe, & McKeown, 1997), although it may be as high as 5% (Kashani et al., 1987). It is important to study depression because of its links to problem behaviours such as suicide, while there is also evidence to suggest that depression and delinquency are not totally independent of each other. An early exposition referred to delinquency or acting out behaviour as “masked depression”, that is, it was asserted that delinquency stems from underlying depression (Weiner, 1970). Other writers identified the “depressed-borderline” delinquent, suggesting that delinquency represents an attempt to escape feelings of depression (Offer, Marohn, & Ostrov, 1979). There would appear to be some support for this thesis as Kandel and her colleagues noted a significant association between delinquency and depression in their sample of over 500 American youth (Kandel, Raveis, & Davies, 1991; see also Loeber, Farrington, Stouthamer-Loeber, & Van Kammen, 1998). Thus, the following hypothesis was formulated:
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
. Results 3.1. Descriptive statistics Table 1 shows the mean scores for adolescent males and females on the two outcome measures. A one-way MANOVA with sex of respondent as the independent factor revealed a significant multivariate effect, Wilks' Lambda=0.90, F (2, 265)=14.12, P<0.0001. Males scored significantly higher than females on the delinquency measure, F (1, 267)=17.01, P<0.0001. Although there were no significant sex differences on the depression measure, females presented with slightly higher scores than did males. The sex difference accounted for 6% of the variance of delinquency (η2=0.06), but only 1.3% of the variance of depression. Table 1. Mean scores and standard deviations on delinquency and depression measures Range Theoretical midpoint Males Females η2 M S.D. M S.D. Delinquency 0–38 21 13.09 7.45 9.19 6.51 0.060 Depression 11–33 22 16.39 3.77 17.35 4.12 0.013 Table options Mean scores on the parental measures for mothers and fathers are shown in Table 2. To test for significant differences in mean scores, t-tests for paired comparisons were conducted. Mothers scored significantly higher than fathers on anxiety, conscientiousness and warm parenting (all Ps<0.001). Fathers reported significantly more physical parenting practises than did mothers (P<0.001). Table 2. Mean scores on parental measures Parental trait Range Mother Father t M SD M SD Anxiety 10–50 28.62 6.48 21.50 4.72 9.74** Anger 10–50 26.37 7.11 26.10 6.28 0.26 Conscientiousness 10–50 38.67 6.75 36.15 6.38 2.98** Warm parenting 6–30 26.12 3.28 22.77 3.79 7.24** Physical parenting 3–15 3.38 0.83 5.39 2.91 7.15** ∗∗ P<0.001. Table options 3.2. Correlations Fathers' reports of their warm parenting correlated r=−0.31 (P<0.01) with their reports of their physical parenting. Among mothers the correlation was r=−0.15, n.s. Childrens' perception of low parental care correlated negatively with parents' reports of warm parenting (mean r=0.23, P<0.05). As predicted, self-reported delinquency correlated significantly with depression among the students, r (266)=0.28, P<0.0001, thus sharing less than 10% of common variance. Table 3 presents the Pearson correlations between the two dependent measures and the various adolescent and parental measures. Delinquency was significantly related to P (r=0.61, P<0.0001) as predicted by the second hypothesis. In line with the third hypothesis, depression was significantly negatively related to E (r=−0.25, P<0.001) and positively related to N (r=0.58, P<0.001). Table 3. Correlations between delinquency, depression and independent variables Predictors Delinquency Depression Adolescent self-reported measures Extraversion 0.18* −0.25** Psychoticism 0.61** 0.05 Neuroticism 0.13* 0.58** Agreeableness −0.31** −0.09 Conscientiousness −0.26** −0.05 Mother low care 0.34** 0.41** Mother overprotectiveness 0.18** 0.36** Father low care 0.21** 0.36** Father overprotectiveness 0.09 0.28** Parental self-reported measures Mother anxiety 0.04 −0.01 Mother anger −0.07 −0.01 Mother conscientiousness −0.01 0.00 Mother warm parenting −0.26** −0.13 Mother physical parenting 0.10 0.05 Father anxiety 0.16 0.04 Father anger 0.04 0.09 Father conscientiousness −0.08 −0.02 Father warm parenting −0.05 0.05 Father physical parenting 0.13 −0.08 ∗ P<0.01. ∗∗ P<0.001. Table options The fourth hypothesis was accepted with respect to depression and partially supported with respect to delinquency. Thus, depression was significantly related to parents' low care and overprotection, while delinquency was related to fathers' low care, mothers' low care and overprotection. The fifth hypothesis that delinquency and depression would be significantly related to parents' reports of their parenting style was partially supported. That is, delinquency was significantly related to mothers' reports of low levels of warm parenting (r=−0.26, P<0.001). No support was found for the sixth hypothesis, namely, that depression and delinquency would be significantly related to parents' maladaptive personality traits. In addition, among adolescents, delinquency was significantly related to low A (r=−0.31, P<0.001) and low C (r=−0.26, P<0.001) as reported by Heaven (1996b). 3.3. Predicting adolescent depression and delinquency We used the General Linear Model (GLM; MANOVA) to determine the best predictors of delinquency and depression. GLM is an advanced form of regression analysis in which a set of multiple factors is used to predict a set of multiple outcome variables, in this case depression and delinquency (Tabachnick & Fidell, 1996). Whilst examining the influence of one independent variable all others are held constant thereby providing information on the amount of unique variance explained by each variable. In the present case, delinquency and depression were entered as dependent factors with sex of respondent as a fixed factor. Age of respondent and adolescent and parental variables were entered as covariates. In addition to testing for main effects, we also examined age and sex interactions with parenting style as well as a E×N interaction. The results of the univariate analyses are reported in Table 4. These results show that the significant predictors of delinquency were adolescent reported P (F=18.73, P<0.001), fathers' high anxiety (F=5.29, P<0.05), and fathers' low levels of C (F=4.18, P<0.05). In addition, there was a significant interaction between sex of adolescent and fathers' physical parenting practices, (F=4.64, P<0.05). Post-hoc analyses showed that, as fathers' levels of physical parenting increased, so the delinquent behaviour of boys increased while the delinquent behaviour of girls decreased (see Fig. 1). Finally, P explained the largest proportion of the variance of delinquency (24.4%). Table 4. Significant predictors of delinquency and depression using GLM showing univariate results Outcome Predictor F t η2 Delinquency Psychoticism 18.73 4.33** 0.244 Fathers' anxiety 5.29 2.30* 0.084 Fathers' conscientiousness 4.18 −2.04* 0.067 Sex×Fathers' physical parenting 4.64 2.15* 0.074 Depression Neuroticism 6.29 2.51* 0.098 Sex×Fathers' warmth 5.69 −2.39* 0.089 ∗ P<0.01. ∗∗ P<0.001. Table options Effects of sex and fathers' physical parenting on levels of delinquency among ... Fig. 1. Effects of sex and fathers' physical parenting on levels of delinquency among adolescents. Figure options Adolescent depression was best predicted by adolescents' N (F=6.29, P<0.05). There was also a significant interaction of sex and father's level of warm parenting on depression, F (1, 88)=5.69, P<0.05. Post-hoc analyses showed that low fatherly warmth increased adolescent depression, but that this effect was more marked for daughters than sons (see Fig. 2). N was found to explain the largest proportion of the variance of depression (9.8%). Effects of sex and fathers' warm parenting on levels of depression among ... Fig. 2. Effects of sex and fathers' warm parenting on levels of depression among adolescents.