خانواده، رفاه و بزهکاری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|38550||2004||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6820 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Criminal Justice, Volume 32, Issue 6, November–December 2004, Pages 565–576
Abstract Data from a five-wave panel probability sample of families in the State of Washington were analyzed to test the hypothesis that female headship and welfare experience increased participation in and frequency of juvenile delinquency. Appropriate statistical models of random effect probit and negative binomial were employed. Results indicated that there were no direct effects of female headship and welfare experience on either prevalence or frequency of juvenile delinquency. Instead, it was found that the number of adult presence in a household and the child's school attachment significantly reduced the probability of delinquency and the tendency of being referred again in court.
Introduction Family structure was one of the most controversial factors that was singled out for analysis and reanalysis in delinquency literature. Among the various forms of family structure, female headship caused particular concern in recent decades because nearly 90 percent of single-parent families were headed by females (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1989). Bray and Hetherington (1993) estimated as many as 40 percent of White children and 75 percent of African American children would experience parental separation or divorce before they reached age sixteen. Since single-parent homes were commonly considered a weakened social institution and a direct cause of delinquency among children (Hirschi, 1995, McCord, 1982, Nye, 1958 and Shaw & McKay, 1932), it was very important to develop a better understanding of the relationship. The existing literature on the relationship between female-headed families and juvenile delinquency, however, was limited in two major ways. First, the prevalence and the incidence of delinquency were generally lumped together, and second, the effect of welfare on delinquency was not controlled for. As a result, there was very limited consensus among scholars with respect to the effect of female-headed family on juvenile delinquency (Austin, 1992, Hirschi, 1995 and Van Voorhis et al., 1988). The purpose of this research was to examine the direct relationship of female headship and welfare on juvenile delinquency. The concept of delinquency was split into two separate concepts of delinquency, where prevalence of delinquency captured the number of persons committing delinquent acts in the sample while incidence of delinquency tapped the number of delinquent acts committed per offender (Farrington, 1987 and Paternoster & Triplett, 1988). Based on panel data collected from a family income study in the State of Washington, this article attempts to advance current knowledge in two respects: (1) Does female headship and the duration of welfare, directly and/or jointly, contribute to participation in juvenile delinquency (prevalence)?; and (2) Are these factors also associated with the extent of delinquency (frequency)? In doing so, the alternative hypothesis that once adult supervision and school attachment were controlled, female headship and welfare experience did not significantly affect delinquency was tested.