رابطه بین فعالیت های فوق برنامه و بزهکاری نوجوانان در نگهداری فرزند
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|38585||2011||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Children and Youth Services Review, Volume 33, Issue 6, June 2011, Pages 963–968
Abstract This study examined the relationships between involvement in extracurricular activities and delinquency for adolescents in foster care. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a subsample of adolescents (n = 117) in long-term foster care was the focus of this study. Contrary to the hypotheses, results indicated that greater involvement in extracurricular activities was associated with higher levels of delinquency. Further analyses revealed that the type of placement and closeness with caregiver predicted delinquency above and beyond the frequency of participation in extracurricular activities. Implications are discussed.
Introduction When maltreatment is so severe that it is no longer safe for a child to remain in the custody of their parents, the child may be placed within the foster care system (Kools, 1997). Often children are removed not only from their biological parents, but from their friends, schools, and communities. These separations may create a sense of loss, and children may react to these losses in maladaptive ways (Grogan-Kaylor et al., 2007 and Haskett et al., 2006). The pervasiveness of behavioral problems among children in foster care has long been documented (Heflinger et al., 2000 and Zima et al., 2000). Determining ways to decrease problematic behavior of adolescents in foster care may help protect them from the serious longer-term consequences of delinquency, such as criminal activity as adults (Ryan, Hernandez, & Herz, 2007). Studies have shown that enhancing a sense of community through involvement in extracurricular activities may be one means of helping to decrease problematic behavior (Fredricks and Eccles, 2006, Linville and Hurbner, 2005, Mahoney and Stattin, 2000, Ryan, Marshall, et al., 2008 and Sandford et al., 2008). However, research examining this relationship specifically for adolescents in foster care has been limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between involvement in extracurricular activities and delinquency for adolescents in long-term foster care. There is substantial evidence that children who are victims of abuse and neglect are at high risk for emotional and behavioral problems (Jonson-Reid, 1998 and Ryan, Herz, et al., 2007). Children who reside in foster care are at a greater risk for various negative outcomes than their peers who are not in foster care (Grogan-Kaylor et al., 2007). Adolescents in foster care have been shown to have a greater susceptibility for behavior problems (Ryan, Marshall, et al., 2008) and behavior problems may lead to delinquency (Lemmon, 2006, Ryan, Testa and Zhai, 2008 and Widom, 2003). Ryan, Hernandez, et al. (2007) reported that 45% of the adolescents in foster care in their sample were arrested at least one time during the study period. Jonson-Reid and Barth (2000) found that middle school aged children entering the teenage years were more likely to be youth offenders following entry into foster care. Similarly, Heflinger et al. (2000) reported that the highest total problem scores were found for children aged 13–15. Further, Rosenthal and Curiel (2006) found that youths' self-report of problem behaviors were even higher than caregivers' reports. Given the increased risk for delinquency specifically for youths within these age ranges, the focus of the present study was mid-to-late adolescents in long-term foster care, and incorporated both youths' and caregivers' reports of delinquency. 1.1. Theoretical background Social control theory is frequently used to explain adolescent delinquency (Li, 2004). Social control theorists suggest that the greater an individual's social capital, the greater their sense of social commitment (Hirschi, 1969). Families are socializing agents responsible for instilling a sense of attachment, commitment, and obligation. People deviate from normative behavior when their social bonds are weak or broken (Hirschi, 1969). Certainly, children in foster care have weakened social bonds. Child maltreatment uniquely impacts a child's social resources (Ryan & Testa, 2005). When abuse or neglect occurs, it may undermine a child's sense of commitment, trust, and obligation resulting in increases in problematic behavior (Cernkovich et al., 2008 and Ryan and Testa, 2005). A recent study designed to identify risk factors associated with female adolescent delinquency found that lower levels of family trust and caring were predictive of higher rates of delinquency (Cernkovich et al., 2008). Further, ineffective parenting has been found to predict adolescent delinquency (Simons, Chao, Conger, & Elder, 2001). Applying social control theory to foster care, the removal of children from their homes may break what social bonds they do have, further diminishing their sense of social control. As a result, increases in problematic behavior may be expected. However, with time, protective factors may lead to decreases in problem behavior (Leon, Ragsdale, Miller, & Spacarelli, 2008). If youths are involved in contexts that promote their sense of commitment, trust, and obligation, one may expect problem behaviors to diminish as youths rebuild their social capital. Ryan, Testa, and Zhai (2008) highlight the role that social bonds plays with delinquency of at-risk youths. Involvement in extracurricular activities may provide opportunities for social bonds with both adult figures and peers. 1.2. Potential effects of youth involvement in activities For decades, communities have attempted to address the needs of at-risk youths by developing and offering specific youth activities (De Wit et al., 2007). Participating in extracurricular activities has been associated with decreased antisocial behavior, specifically aggression, among youths (Mahoney, 2000). For adolescents in foster care, who are already more susceptible to engaging in problematic behavior, being involved in structured extracurricular activities may be a significant protective factor against risky behaviors. Family disruption has been theoretically linked with a sense of social disorganization which has been associated with behavior problems in adolescents (Tiet, Huizinga, & Byrnes, 2010). Relying on social disorganization theory, Tiet et al. (2010) hypothesized that youths' report of involvement in extracurricular activities would be associated with lower levels of anti-social behavior among adolescents living in high-risk neighborhoods. Results provided tentative support for the positive relationship between involvement in activities and resilience. Other researchers have also demonstrated that youths who drop out of activities have greater delinquency scores compared to those who stayed in structured extra-curricular activities (Persson, Kerr, & Stattin, 2007). Similarly, Haskett et al. (2006) demonstrated that experiences within the broader community may moderate the relationship between out-of home placement and delinquency. Different types of activities, however, may yield different outcomes (Persson et al., 2007). Activities that are structured and have positive role models are associated with positive adolescent outcomes (Mahoney and Stattin, 2000 and Sandford et al., 2008). Extracurricular activities that have regularly scheduled practices or meetings may provide a sense of structure to children's lives. For adolescents in foster care, this may be beneficial as sometimes these children may endure substantial, continual changes. Often times, children in foster care are confronted with changes with friends, case workers, and even foster parents. Participating in an extracurricular activity may provide a sense of structure that may help reestablish some sense of stability to these young people's lives. Yet not all studies demonstrate positive relationship between involvement in activities and outcomes. For example, in a randomized controlled trial, De Wit et al. (2007) conducted a national level evaluation of a specific community program, namely Big Brother Big Sisters, aimed to improve child behavior among at-risk youths. Results did not indicate significant differences between many outcomes, including behavior problems, when comparing experimental and control groups. The authors suggested, however, that the lack of significance may be related to other factors, such as a lack of statistical power. Similarly, Mahoney and Stattin (2000) showed a link between unstructured activities and an increase in antisocial behavior and delinquency. Although researchers have begun to focus on the relationship between involvement in extracurricular activities and problematic behaviors, no known study has examined this specifically for adolescents in foster care. 1.3. Type of placement, closeness with caregivers, and outcomes Although the general term foster care is frequently used to describe the living situations of all children involved with the child welfare system, not every placement is the same. Approximately half of the children in foster care are placed with relatives in situations often labeled “kinship care” or “relative placement” ( Dubowitz et al., 1994). Yet, in other instances, usually when kinship care is not possible, children are placed in traditional foster care settings where they reside with non-relatives. Placement type is sometimes a controversial issue in the child welfare literature. There are some who endorse kinship care as the preferred placement type, because it may eliminate the trauma associated with placing children with strangers (Dubowitz et al., 1994), and it may help maintain family connections (Holtan et al., 2005 and Rushton and Minnis, 2002). However, others voice concerns about placing children in the same family that raised parents who were unable to care for their children (Dubowitz et al., 1994). Additionally, kinship placements are perceived as more difficult to supervise, more likely to delay reunification, and more likely to permit unsupervised contact between biological parents and children when compared to non-relative foster care placements (Dubowitz et al., 1994). Youths placed in group home settings are at a higher risk of aggression and delinquency than youths who are placed in traditional foster family settings; the relative risk of delinquency is at least double for adolescents who have experienced at least one group home placement compared to youths in traditional foster care placements (Ryan, Marshall, et al., 2008). Some espouse that the increased risk for delinquency for youths in group homes specifically may be due to the “negative effects of peer contagion” (Ryan, Marshall, et al., 2008, p. 1089), where the opportunities for adolescents to seek peers with similar attitudes toward delinquency may be greater in group homes. In a review of research on placement outcomes for children in treatment foster care, Redding, Fried, and Britner (2000) suggested that poor relationships with current caregivers have negative effects on children in foster care. Similarly, findings from a study conducted by Moretti, Holland, Moore, and McKay (2004) indicated that an intervention aimed to improve caregiver-adolescent relationships resulted in a diminishment of delinquency of adolescents at post-test. Although little is known about the effect of involvement with extracurricular activities and delinquency specifically for adolescents in foster care, it has been shown that involvement in activities may afford opportunities to build positive relationships, which in turn, may result in better outcomes for the youths participating in these activities (Mahoney and Stattin, 2000 and Sandford et al., 2008). For youths in foster care, positive adult role models may be especially important. Bender (2010) emphasizes that it is the responsibility of child welfare professionals to identify emotional, social, and psychosocial factors that can prevent youths in foster care from becoming juvenile delinquents. In essence, it is the responsibility of caseworkers to assess what services may benefit children in care, and advocate for those services with the anticipation that they may deter later delinquency.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
. Results A series of linear regressions were performed to analyze the relationship between involvement in extracurricular activities and delinquency for adolescents in long-term foster care. We hypothesized that there would be a significant inverse relationship between involvement in extracurricular activities and delinquency. Results revealed significant relationships between youth activities (YSR-AS) and both youth report of delinquency [β = 0.44, t(37) = 3.0, p < 0.01] and caregiver report [β = 0.42, t(36) = 2.7, p = 0.01]. Contrary to the original hypothesis, however, results indicated a positive relationship between youth participation in activities and delinquent behavior. Similarly, we also examined the relationship between the frequency in which youths participated in activities, and both youth and caregiver reports of delinquency. Again, both relationships were significant and in the unexpected direction [youth report of delinquency β = 0.22, t(114) = 2.4, p = 0.02; caregiver report β = 0.26, t(112) = 2.8, p < 0.01]. Correlations are presented in Table 1. Table 1. Correlations of delinquency, involvement in activities, frequency of participation in activities, and closeness to caregiver (N = 117). Variables 1 2 3 4 5 1. Youth report of delinquency – 2. Caregiver report of delinquency 0.52⁎⁎⁎ – 3. Involvement in activities 0.44⁎⁎ 0.42⁎⁎ – 4. Frequency of participation in activities 0.22⁎ 0.26⁎⁎ 0.13 – 5. Closeness with caregivers − 0.09 − 0.32⁎⁎⁎ − 0.04 0.16 – ⁎⁎⁎ p < 0.001. ⁎⁎ p < 0.01. ⁎ p < 0.05. Table options The association between participation in activities and delinquency may be influenced by other important factors, such as type of out-of-home placement and closeness with caregivers. Therefore, multiple regression analyses were conducted using youth and caregiver report of delinquency as the dependent factors. The linear combination of predictors (i.e. frequency of participation in activities, type of out-of-home placement, and closeness with caregivers) was significantly related to both youth report of delinquency [F(3, 91) = 3.8, p = 0.02], and caregiver report of delinquency [F(3, 88) = 6.4, p < 0.01]. Next, multiple regression analyses with unordered sets of predictors were conducted to test the extent to which type of out-of-home placement and closeness with caregivers predicted delinquency over and above the frequency in which youths participated in activities. For youth report of delinquency, the type of out of home placement predicted delinquency above and beyond the frequency of participation in extracurricular activities [R2 change = 0.05, F(3, 88) = 4.1, p = 0.05], but closeness with caregivers did not [R2 change = 0.01, F(3, 86) = 0.48, p = 0.49]. Comparatively, results of multiple regression conducted with the same predictors and caregiver report of delinquency, closeness with caregiver predicted delinquency above and beyond the frequency of participation in extracurricular activities [R2 change = 0.13, F(3, 86) = 4.3, p = 0.04]. Type of out of home placement, however, offered no significant predictive power beyond that contributed by frequency of participation in activities and closeness to caregiver [R2 change = 0.01, F(3, 87) = 0.47, p = 0.50]. Lastly, analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to test if there would be significant differences in the mean of both youth and caregiver reports of delinquency based on type of out of home placement, closeness with caregivers, and the frequency in which adolescents participated in activities. As seen in Table 2, there were significant differences in mean scores of youth report of delinquency and the frequency in which they participated in activities. Adolescents with the least frequent participation had the lowest self-report of delinquency (M = 56.7, SD = 7.2), whereas those who participated in activities 3 or more times a week reported the highest levels of delinquency (M = 61.5, SD = 12.0). The mean differences in self-report of delinquency did not significantly differ, however, based on closeness to caregiver or type of out-of-home placement. The differences in the means of caregiver report of delinquency, however, were significantly different for frequency of participation, closeness to caregiver, and type of out of home placement (please see Table 3). Adolescents residing in group homes, those who participated in activities 3 or more times a week, and adolescents with self-reports of a lack of closeness to their caregiver reported the highest mean scores of delinquency. Table 2. Means, standard deviation, and one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) for youth reports of delinquency (N = 111). Variables Youth report of delinquency Mean SD SS MS F Frequency of activities Less than once a week 56.7 7.2 583.5 291.7 3.3⁎ 1–2 times a week 57.1 6.6 3 or more times a week 61.5 12.0 Closeness to caregiver Not close 58.6 9.4 407.4 203.7 2.2 Somewhat close 63.9 9.9 Close 58.2 9.7 Out of home placement type Foster home 57.2 8.5 483.6 241.8 2.8 Kinship care 56.1 8.6 Group home 61.8 11.3 ⁎ p < 0.01. Table options Table 3. Means, standard deviation, and one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) for caregiver reports of delinquency (N = 113). Caregiver report of delinquency Variables Mean SD SS MS F Frequency of activities Less than once a week 61.4 8.2 1200.9 600.4 7.9⁎ 1–2 times a week 59.3 7.9 3 or more times a week 66.7 9.7 Closeness to caregiver Not close 66.3 8.6 687.6 343.8 4.2⁎ Somewhat close 67.0 10.1 Close 61.2 9.3 Out of home placement type Foster home 62.4 8.7 629.2 314.6 4.6⁎ Kinship care 58.1 7.3 Group home 65.2 8.6 ⁎ p < 0.01.