عوامل خطر برای دخالت در بزهکاری در میان مهاجران و دختران متولد اسرائیل
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|38604||2012||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8876 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Children and Youth Services Review, Volume 34, Issue 10, October 2012, Pages 2052–2060
Abstract This study examines the types of offenses girls are involved in, and the contribution of sexual abuse and social control factors among immigrant and native-born Israeli girls in explaining their involvement in delinquency and anti-social behavior. A total of 93 girls, aged 15–19, participated in the study. Of these, 45.2% were immigrants from the former Soviet Union and 54.8% were native-born Israelis. They answered an anonymous self-reporting questionnaire that examined their level of involvement in several types of delinquent behaviors (such as crimes against a person or public disorder offenses), anti-social behaviors (such as alcohol and cigarette use and involvement in prostitution) and a series of independent variables such as sexual abuse, parental involvement and attachment, and socio-economic status. We found that girls are involved in a variety of types of offense, including prostitution. We also found that a large number of the participants (61%) had been exposed to sexual abuse during their lifetime. Girls who had been exposed to sexual abuse reported higher levels of involvement in all delinquent behaviors. In addition, the relationship between sexual abuse and drug abuse was mediated by involvement in prostitution. The higher the parental control and the girls' commitment to school and learning, the lower their reports on most of the delinquent behaviors we examined. Immigrant girls reported more than native-born girls on their involvement in most delinquent behaviors. More immigrant girls reported on their involvement in most delinquent behaviors than native-born girls. The results emphasize the central role that sexual abuse plays in predicting girls' involvement in delinquency: it was found particularly to affect girls' involvement in prostitution and drug use. The study emphasizes the need to develop practice methods that meet the specific needs of girls at risk for involvement in delinquency and anti-social behavior.
Introduction Previous studies have located risk factors for anti-social behavior among girls at three different levels: personal-level characteristics (Moffitt & Caspi, 2001), family characteristics (Odgers et al., 2008) and gender–environmental characteristics. [F]amily factors are important in girls' pathways to antisocial behavior because, first, they are indicators of a cold and unsupportive family climate advanced by the Risky Families Model. . . . This family climate reinforces negative coping behaviors, including anger and hostility. . . . (Javdani, Sadeh, & Verona, 2011: 1336) Starting in the late 1980s, studies that examined sexual abuse during childhood found that experience of sexual abuse increases the risk of women and girls becoming involved in delinquency (Chesney-Lind and Sheldon, 2004, Javdani et al., 2011 and Widom, 1989). These studies examined outcomes over long periods of time (Siegel & Williams, 2003) and are effective in demonstrating that sexual abuse should be considered a risk factor, promoting exposure to further victimization and risky behaviors such as delinquency and the use of alcohol and drugs. This study aims to combine two of these levels of risk: family factors (parental attachment and involvement) and gender–environmental factors (sexual abuse) as they are expressed in relation to delinquency (such as crimes against property and the sale and use of drugs) and anti-social behaviors (such as involvement in prostitution and the use of cigarettes and alcohol) among immigrant and non-immigrant girls treated at the Division of At-Risk Youth in Israel. 1.1. Female involvement in delinquency During the past few decades there has been an increase in interest among professionals, researchers and the public at large in the phenomenon of delinquent girls and their involvement in anti-social behavior (Javdani et al., 2011. The existing data from studies carried out in Israel and other countries reveal that the incidence of delinquency among girls is much lower than among boys. In Israel, girls constituted 8.8% of juveniles referred to the Youth Probation Service in 2009 (Zionit, Berman, & Ben-Arieh, 2010). As a result of the low level of girls' involvement in delinquency, many earlier studies focused mainly on males, as they are over-represented in the criminal justice system (Javdani et al., 2011). However, recent data reveal a reduction in this disparity. In the United States and Europe, the official statistics for delinquency during the past two decades reveal that the number of crimes committed by girls generally has doubled. This includes violent crimes, theft, and status offenses (Asquith, 1998, Chesney-Lind, 2001, Junger-Tas et al., 2004 and SAMHSA — Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2009). The discourse in the research and theoretical literature relates to the extent to which the reduction in this disparity and the increase in girls' delinquency reflects a real change in their behavior. It also asks whether the change mainly reflects alterations in the policy regarding treatment of delinquent girls. Existing research tends to stress that the increase is mainly the result of changes on the part of the police and the courts in their treatment of delinquent girls. The present attitude and treatment reflects a reduced tolerance of delinquent behavior among girls (for further discussion see Steffensmeier, Schwartz, Zhong, & Ackerman, 2005). 1.2. Theoretical and empirical frameworks Studies that examined girls' involvement in delinquent and anti-social behaviors stress that these girls are exposed to a variety of risk factors for delinquency. Some of these factors are also relevant for boys, such as neighborhood environment and school involvement. On the other hand, other factors are more specific for girls' involvement in delinquency—such as sexual abuse and the early onset of puberty (Slowikowski, 2010). 1.3. Social control and girls' involvement in delinquency Hirschi's (1969) social control theory is one of the most examined theories in the research that endeavors to explain the involvement of youth in delinquency. According to the theory, youth involvement in delinquency results when their bond to society is weak or broken (Cullen & Agnew, 2003). This social bond has four elements: attachment, commitment, belief and involvement. The present study focuses on three aspects that have been found to be the most central to youthful involvement in delinquency—attachment to parents, parental involvement in the girl's life, and the girl's commitment to conventional activity (Booth et al., 2008 and Wong, 2005). Hirschi argued that youth could be attached to peers, teachers and others, although their relationship with their parents is the most important. This is because the family fulfills a central role in the socialization of the child, and influences the molding of the personality of the individual (Steinberg & Silk, 2002). In studies that examined the involvement of girls in delinquency and anti-social behavior, it became apparent that the family constitutes one of the central factors that contributes to or prevents the involvement of girls in delinquency (Hirschi, 2002, Lederman et al., 2004, Leventhal and Brooks-Gunn, 2000 and Seydlitz and Jenkins, 1998). A central factor regarding the family is the attachment that relates to the emotional and psychological relationship of the boy or girl with their parents. According to the control theory, a breakdown of attachment in the life of the child may lead to involvement in delinquency. Furthermore, a lower level of parental involvement in the child–parent relationship weakens the parents' ability to control the behavior of their children and, thus, the likelihood of their children's involvement in delinquency and anti-social behavior is greater (Hirschi, 2002). The majority of studies that examined the various elements of Hirschi's control theory focused on boys (Booth et al., 2008). The studies during the past decade that examined the differences between boys and girls regarding the connection between attachment to parents and involvement in delinquency found that the elements of attachment are more significant for girls than for boys (Huebner and Betts, 2002 and Laundra et al., 2002). Booth et al. (2008) point out that psychological research in this field found that attachment was more significant for girls than for boys. Girls' sense of self is more connected with positive relationships with their parents than boys', so a breakdown in these relations may constitute a risk factor for delinquency among girls. However, other studies in this field claimed that the correlation between attachment and girls' delinquency is not consistent, and changes in accordance with the type of crime committed (Mason & Windle, 2002). Thus our study examines the correlation between the attachment and involvement of parents and a wide range of delinquent behaviors (e.g., crimes against persons and property) and anti-social behavior (e.g., prostitution and the use of alcohol and cigarettes). Another aspect of the control theory that we examine in this study is the commitment with which the individual invests in conventional activities and the extent of their motivation to succeed. According to this theory, involvement in delinquency can adversely affect a boy's or girl's chances of achievement and success. Girls who are committed to success will be less involved in delinquent behavior. Studies that examined this aspect among girls found that the more girls are committed to academic success, the fewer the reports about their involvement in delinquent behavior (Dukes and Stein, 2001 and Ozbay and Ozcan, 2008). In addition to the attributes of attachment and parent involvement, this study examines the correlation between the economic status of the family and the parents' educational level and girls' involvement in delinquency. These attributes were also found to be risk factors for the involvement of youth in delinquency in general, especially in violent crimes (Howell, 2003 and Leventhal and Brooks-Gunn, 2000). 1.4. Immigration as a risk factor in delinquency Immigration may have many positive effects on different aspects of immigrant life and the community in general (economically, socially and culturally) (Freilich et al., 2002 and Grinberg and Grinberg, 1984). Despite these positive effects, immigration can also cause many problems and difficulties both at the general level – for example, through a lack of resources, rising inflation, unemployment and crime (Martinez and Lee, 2000 and Suarez-Orozco and Suarez-Orozco, 2001) – and, at the personal level, through pressure, stress, family crises and the loss of social and economic standing (Slonim-Nevo et al., 2006, Tartakovsky and Mirsky, 2001 and Ward et al., 2001). Israel is considered a country of immigrants: Jews from all over the world are encouraged to migrate there. Between the years 1989 and 2006 about 1.2 million immigrants from the FSU arrived in Israel (Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, 2007). In 2009, 93,000 immigrant children were living in Israel, more than half of whom were from the FSU (Zionit et al., 2010). The immigration process has unique attributes that are aimed to ease assimilation, including various types of financial aid and the immediate granting of citizenship. The political and ideological basis for many people's immigration is also a positive factor in this process (Titzmann, Silbereisen, Mesch, & Schmitt-Rodermund, 2011). However, studies have shown that immigrants in Israel have to cope with financial, cultural and social problems similar to those faced by immigrants in other countries (Shechory & Ben-David, 2010). For example, immigrants from the former Soviet Union have undergone a major cultural change, which has been accompanied by a crisis in assimilation in all aspects of their lives (Horowitz & Brosh, 2011). In the course of the assimilation process there has been a breakdown of existing cultural, social and familial conventions. Cultural norms and values that they had been accustomed to for many generations have been severed. This has generated a cultural conflict that has been given poignant expression especially among the immigrants' children (Martinez & Lee, 2000). This immigration has also brought with it a number of financial problems. A large proportion of these immigrants have been unable to find work in their professional fields and have had to take jobs that are inconsistent with their level of education. This has brought about a lowering of the immigrants' standard of living and is a cause of frustration within the family (Fialkova and Yelenevskaya, 2007 and Horowitz and Brosh, 2011). In discussing the conflict theory, Sellin (1938) addresses the correlation between immigration and delinquency. According to this theory, “cultural conflict” describes the conflict between the cultural norms of the absorbing society and the norms of the immigrant. There may also be a conflict of social structure, which is expressed in discrimination against the immigrants within the socio-economic stratification of the absorbing society, resulting from differing allocations of resources between the immigrants and the native population (whether intentionally or unintentionally). Both types of conflict can lead to delinquency among the immigrant population. Support for this theory can be seen in the findings of studies that were carried out among immigrants and their children in the U.S. and Western Europe. It is important to point out that these studies relate specifically to children and young immigrants generally, not specifically to immigrant girls. These studies found that the rate of delinquency is higher among immigrant youth than among native-born European and American youth (Boutakidis et al., 2006, Le and Stockdale, 2008 and Rumbaut and Portes, 2002). In Israel data on delinquency shows similarly that the rate of delinquency among young immigrants is proportionally higher than that of the general population (Shechory & Ben-David, 2010). 1.5. Sexual abuse and girls' involvement in delinquency One risk factor that has received a great deal of attention from researchers is the exposure of girls to sexual abuse and the influence of abuse on their involvement in delinquency (Schaffner, 2007, Silbert and Pines, 1982 and Swanston et al., 2003). Various studies show that girls who have experienced abuse are more likely to carry out violent offenses than those who have not been abused (Herrera and McCloskey, 2001, Margolin and Gordis, 2000 and Widom and Maxfield, 2001). Gur (2004) points out that the feelings of frustration, helplessness and lack of strength brought on by abuse create a situation in which the girl is driven into externalized and violent behaviors (Chesney-Lind, 2001). The research also shows that girls who have been subjected to sexual assault are also more involved in anti-social behavior such as prostitution and the use of drugs (Briere, 1996, Finkelhor and Ormrod, 2004, Hwang and Bedford, 2004 and Pedersen and Hegna, 2003). Briere (1996) talks about the feelings of self-hatred aroused in (female) victims of rape. Victims of sexual abuse often resort to the use of drugs to help relieve the feelings of pain, self-hatred, fear and confusion engendered by their abuse. Silbert and Pines (1982) argues that women who have experienced abuse and assault often run away from home, tending to end up on the street, and often ultimately resorting to prostitution. In order to cope with the extreme difficulties associated with prostitution, many girls begin to use drugs (Gur, 2004). Thus, as previous works have suggested, the relationship between sexual abuse and the use of drugs is mediated through the girls' involvement in prostitution (Brawn and Roe-Sepowitz, 2008 and Hwang and Bedford, 2004). The current study examined the direct effects of sexual abuse on girls' involvement in delinquency. In addition, we will explore whether the association between sexual abuse and drug use is mediated by involvement in prostitution.1 1.6. Division of At-Risk Youth The Division of At-Risk Youth was established at the end of the 60th of the previous decade under the jurisdiction of the Israel Ministry of Education. The division attends to children and young adults aged 12–21 in 154 localities around the country. During 2010, 18,585 youth were helped, of whom 31% were female. The division provides social, psychological, and educational services for youth with adjustment difficulties and at risk for dropping out of school and vagrancy (Israel Ministry of Education, 2007). It should be noted that youth in Israel who commit crimes that have been reported to the police or who have been caught and accused of a criminal offense are referred by the police to the juvenile probation services. 1.7. Summary of hypotheses and research questions 1. Higher levels of exposure to sexual abuse are associated with higher levels of involvement in delinquent and anti-social behaviors among girls. 2. Greater levels of girl–parent attachment are associated with lower levels of involvement in delinquent and anti-social behaviors. 3. The higher the parental involvement in girls' lives the lower their involvement in delinquent and anti-social behaviors. 4. Higher levels of girls' commitment to conventional activities are associated with lower levels of involvement in delinquent and anti-social behaviors. 5. Higher levels of involvement in delinquent and anti-social behaviors will be found among immigrant girls from the former Soviet Union when compared to native-born girls. 6. Involvement in prostitution will mediate the relationship between sexual abuse and the use of drugs. 7. Girls whose parents have lower levels of education and income will report higher levels of involvement in delinquency and anti-social behaviors than other girls.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
. Results 3.1. Descriptive statistics Table 1 presents the summary of dependent variables. We found that the number of girls involved in public disorder crimes was the highest. The findings show that 94.6% of the girls had been involved in at least one type of public disorder crime, while 26.9% had been involved in at least four offenses of this type during the previous year. The study showed that the number of girls involved in crimes against property and or persons was similar. The findings show that 87.1% of the girls had been involved in at least one offense against property during the previous year, while 21.6% had been involved in at least six offenses of this type during the previous year. 75.3% of the girls had been involved in at least one type of offense against persons during the previous year and 31.2% had been involved in at least three such offenses during the previous year. The involvement of girls in selling drugs was the lowest. 6.5% of the girls reported involvement in at least one type of offense in the sale of drugs during the previous year. We also found that 8.7% of the girls reported involvement in prostitution at least once during the previous year. The study found a high rate of cigarette and alcohol use among the girls. 91.4% of the girls reported use of cigarettes or some sort of alcohol. The use of drugs was lower. 24.7% reported the use of one or more drugs during the previous year, while 75.3% of the girls did not report the use of any type of drug. 3.2. Bi-variate analysis The findings in Table 2 show that the father's education level was positively associated with levels of involvement in delinquency. That is, the higher the father's education, the more girls reported involvement in public disorder offenses, selling or using drugs, and alcohol and cigarette use. Similarly, the higher the mother's education, the more girls reported involvement in public disorder offenses and the use of cigarettes and alcohol. The findings show that there was no association between the girls' families' economic status and their involvement in delinquency and anti-social behavior, apart from the sale of drugs. Higher levels of economic status were associated with higher reports of selling drugs. There was a significant negative relationship between the control variables and most of the delinquent and anti-social behaviors that were examined in this study. It was found that the greater the parents' involvement and the girl's attachment to her parents, the lower their reports on involvement in crimes against persons and property, public disorder crime and use of alcohol, cigarettes and drugs. Attachment to parents was also negatively associated with levels of involvement in prostitution. Higher levels of commitment to conventional activities and goals were associated with lower levels of alcohol and drug use, crimes against persons and property and public disorder crimes. The findings in Table 2 show that the exposure of a girl to sexual abuse was significantly and positively associated with all the types of delinquency and anti-social behavior that were examined in the study. We found that the immigrant girls reported more than the native-born girls on involvement in crimes against property, public disorder crimes and the use of cigarettes and alcohol (see Table 3). 3.3. Multivariate regression Table 4 presents a multivariate hierarchal regression for predicting girls' delinquent and anti-social behavior. The findings show that the background variables make no significant contribution to the prediction of girls' involvement in delinquency and anti-social behavior. The findings also show that the addition of the social control factors to the model explains a considerable amount of the variance in the girls' reports of delinquency and anti-social behaviors (4.5%–14.3%). The results presented in Table 4 show that sexual abuse is significantly and positively connected to all delinquent and anti-social behaviors except the use of drugs. It is important to note that this relationship was found to be significant even after controlling for background and social control factors. This finding indicates the central role that the variable of sexual abuse plays in risky behavior among girls. It explains the considerable rate of variance in the girls' reports on delinquent and anti-social behaviors (4.4%–19.6%). The highest contribution of this variable is found in the prediction of involvement in prostitution. 3.4. Model of mediation In this section we explored whether the relationship between sexual abuse and the use of drugs is mediated by the involvement of girls in prostitution. The assumption behind this hypothesis lies in the theoretical and research literature in which it is reported that a girl who has been subjected to sexual abuse will be involved in prostitution and therefore will use drugs. Fig. 1 shows the mediation model examined in this work. The model was tested using the stages proposed by Baron and Kenny (1986). The dependent variable was drug use; the results for the first two stages were tested and reported in Table 4, in which drug use was found to be significantly associated with sexual abuse (β = .366, p = .004). Involvement in prostitution was also found to be significantly associated with sexual abuse (β = .525, p < .001). Involvement in prostitution as a mediating factor in the relationship between ... Fig. 1. Involvement in prostitution as a mediating factor in the relationship between sexual abuse and drug use. The result above the dotted line refer to the correlation between sexual abuse and drug use before added involvement in prostitution to the model. The results below this line present the correlation between sexual abuse and drug use after adding involvement in prostitution to the model. Figure options In the third stage, a hierarchical regression model was tested in which drug use was the dependent variable. Involvement in prostitution was added as an independent variable, after controlling for the other independent factors presented in Table 4. Involvement in prostitution was found to be significantly and positively associated with drug use (β = .439, p = .001), while no more significant association was found between sexual abuse and drug use. To explore the significance of the mediation model, we used the Sobel test (Sobel, 1982), which found that involvement in prostitution significantly mediates the correlation between sexual abuse and the use of drugs (Zab = 2.782, p = .005).