پیش بینی تفاوت های فردی در تمرکز حواس: نقش اضطراب صفتی, اضطراب دلبستگی و کنترل توجه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|38655||2009||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 46, Issue 2, January 2009, Pages 94–99
Abstract Two correlational studies sought to identify possible predictors of individual differences in naturally occurring mindfulness. In study one, trait anxiety and attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance, were negatively predictive of mindfulness. In study two, trait anxiety (−) and attentional control (+), but not openness or parental nurturance, predicted mindfulness. In addition, there was evidence of a partial mediation effect of attentional control on the association between trait anxiety and mindfulness. Key features of trait anxiety such as attentional and interpretative processing biases, as well as those of attachment anxiety such as rumination and hypersensitivity, are at odds with mindfulness characteristics such as attention to what is present coupled with an attitude of openness and acceptance. Thus, whether generalised or specific, anxiety appears to be antagonistic to mindfulness; control over one’s attentional resources may form part of the underlying explanation.
Introduction Originating in contemplative traditions such as Buddhism, mindfulness is defined as a state of enhanced attention to, and awareness of, what is taking place in the present (Brown & Ryan, 2003). Such awareness is characterised as open and receptive, but not judgemental (Bishop et al., 2004 and Deikman, 1982). Mindfulness appears to be absent when attention is captured by rumination and fantasy (Brown & Ryan, 2003). Building on the original work of Kabat Zinn (1982), mindfulness-based interventions have proliferated over the past twenty years, mostly with very positive outcomes (Baer, 2003 and Grossman et al., 2004). Underpinning most of these studies is an assumption that mindfulness training increases levels of mindfulness and such increases mediate the observed positive outcomes. However, attempts to validate this assumption have rarely been undertaken, the most likely reason being the absence of appropriate measures. It is only in the last few years that psychometrically valid measures of mindfulness have appeared in the literature (Baer et al., 2004, Brown and Ryan, 2003 and Walach et al., 2006). In developing their measure, Brown and Ryan (2003) argued that mindfulness could be considered a ‘naturally occurring characteristic’ (p. 822) with both inter- and intra-personal variation. Similarly, Walach et al. (2006) argued that mindfulness could be expressed dispositionally and in state form, depending on the time-frame in question. Given the importance of the construct in terms of physical and psychological well-being, Brown and Ryan (2003) emphasised the need to explore its antecedents. As an initial step in this direction, the two studies reported here were designed to investigate possible predictors of mindfulness
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
. Conclusions and limitations In the two studies reported here, trait anxiety emerged as a reliable predictor of mindfulness irrespective of how either variable was measured. Key features of trait anxiety such as attentional and interpretative processing biases (Eysenck, 1992) are incompatible with what are believed to be the central components of mindfulness, namely, attention to one’s immediate experiences and an attitude of openness and acceptance (Bishop et al., 2004, Brown and Ryan, 2003 and Walach et al., 2006). In addition, attachment anxiety is also negatively predictive of mindfulness. Again, examination of the mechanisms and processes underpinning hyper-activation and attachment anxiety such as effortful proximity-seeking, hypersensitivity and excessive rumination (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2003) provides a clear rationale for the observed association. Thus, regardless of the specificity with which it is assessed, anxiety appears to militate against the expression of mindfulness. While the lack of attentional control associated with anxiety (Derryberry & Reed, 2002) constitutes part of the explanation of its association with mindfulness, other factors are clearly implicated. However, the reliance of the current studies on self-report methods, cross-sectional and correlational designs, limits the extent to which conclusions can be drawn about possible pathways between anxiety, attentional control and mindfulness.