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|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|38809||2015||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6570 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 54, January 2016, Pages 134–141
Abstract Partner phubbing (Pphubbing) can be best understood as the extent to which an individual uses or is distracted by his/her cell phone while in the company of his/her relationship partner. The present study is the first to investigate the oft-occurring behavior of Pphubbing and its impact on relationship satisfaction and personal well-being. In Study 1, a nine-item scale was developed to measure Pphubbing. The scale was found to be highly reliable and valid. Study 2 assessed the study's proposed relationships among a sample of 145 adults. Results suggest that Pphubbing's impact on relationship satisfaction is mediated by conflict over cell phone use. One's attachment style was found to moderate the Pphubbing – cell phone conflict relationship. Those with anxious attachment styles reported higher levels of cell phone conflict than those with less anxious attachment styles. Importantly, Pphubbing was found to indirectly impact depression through relationship satisfaction and ultimately life satisfaction. Given the ever-increasing use of cell phones to communicate between romantic partners, the present research offers insight into the process by which such use may impact relationship satisfaction and personal well-being. Directions for future research are discussed.
1. Introduction Portmanteau (n) – a word whose form and meaning are derived from a blending together of two or more distinct words. Phubbing is a portmanteau of the words “phone” and “snubbing”. To be phubbed is to be snubbed by someone using their cell phone when in your company. The “phubb” could be an interruption of your conversation with someone when he or she attends to their cell phone or when you are in close proximity to another but they use their cell phone instead of communicating with you. Partner phubbing (Pphubbing) is when the above takes place when in the company of your spouse or significant other. The ubiquitous nature of cell phones makes phubbing in general, or more specifically, Pphubbing a near inevitable occurrence. In fact, seventy percent of a sample of 143 females involved in romantic relationships reported that cell phones “sometimes”, “often”, “very often,” or “all the time” interfered in their interactions with their partners (McDaniel & Coyne, 2014). Other studies have found Pphubbing to be a common occurrence among romantic partners as well (Coyne, Stockdale, Busby, Iverson, & Grant, 2011; Lenhart & Duggan, 2014). The present research investigates whether Pphubbing impacts relationship satisfaction and individual well-being. The potentially mediating impact of cell phone conflict (Coyne et al. 2011) and moderating effect of attachment style (Bowlby, 1969) are also investigated to better understand the process by which Pphubbing impacts relationship satisfaction amongst romantic partners. 1.1. Study contributions The present study makes several important contributions to the current literature. First, we have built and validated a measure of Pphubbing. Valid and reliable scales are needed to advance our understanding of how technology impacts relationships. As a behavior that occurs regularly, Pphubbing should be at the forefront of any efforts to understand how cell phone use impacts romantic relationships. A second contribution is that the present study investigates how Pphubbing affects romantic relationships—an area of research that has received scant attention (McDaniel & Coyne, 2014). A third contribution is that the present study focuses on the impact of cell phone use on relationship satisfaction. To date, previous research has combined many different types of technology (television, computers, cell phones, iPads, and tablets) when investigating the impact of technology use on relationships obfuscating the unique role that any specific technology might play (Padilla-Walker, Coyne, & Fraser, 2012). A fourth contribution includes the potential mediating rule of cell phone conflict in the Pphubbing – relationship satisfaction link. Previous research suggests that it is not the time spent with technologies that impacts relationship satisfaction, but the conflict created by the technology use (Coyne et al., 2012). The present study also examines the potential moderating effect of attachment style on the Pphubbing—cell phone conflict relationship. A final contribution is that the present study investigates the impact of Pphubbing on personal well-being. Previous research suggests that cell phone use and texting can increase reported stress (Beranuy et al., 2009 and Lepp et al., 2014) and unhealthy attachment to one's cell phone can increase symptoms of depression (Gentile, Coyne, & Bricolo, 2012; Harwood, Dooley, Scott, & Joiner, 2014). A sequential moderated-mediation model (Preacher & Hayes, 2008) is used to examine the hypothesized impact of Pphubbing on life satisfaction and depression.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Conclusion The institution of marriage (and romantic relationships in general) is under attack. Approximately 40–50 percent of all marriages will end in divorce (www.apa.org/topics/divorce/), while many of the intact unions are poorly functioning and are characterized by low levels of relationship satisfaction on the part of one or both partners (Ahlstrom et al., 2012). As intimated in the title of this paper, it appears that life has become a major distraction from our cell phones. It is ironic that cell phones, originally designed as a communication tool, may actually hinder rather than foster satisfying relationships among romantic partners. The results presented herein suggest that partner phubbing creates conflict over such use of one's cell phone which in turn impacts reported relationship satisfaction, and ultimately personal well-being. Attachment anxiety was found to moderate the Pphubbing – cell phone conflict relationship. Specifically, among individuals who experience Pphubbing, those with anxious attachment styles report higher levels of cell phone conflict than those with less anxious attachment styles. Given that the number of anxiously attached individuals has been increasing steadily over the past couple of decades and is thought to continue increasing (Bowlby, 1980 and Holmes, 1993), the negative effects of Pphubbing may well grow stronger with time. The results presented herein also found that relationship satisfaction had a positive impact on life satisfaction which in turn had a negative influence on depression. Support for sequential moderated mediation was provided in that Pphubbing's indirect effect on depression was significant via relationship satisfaction and then life satisfaction. In summary, how individuals use cell phones in the presence of a romantic partner impacts the partner's satisfaction with their relationship, which in turn can negatively impact their personal well-being. Given that marital/relationship satisfaction is a cornerstone of both individual and family well-being (Ahlstrom et al., 2012), research that investigates how technology use impacts our relationships is critical.