استفاده از تئوری عصب واگ چندگانه برای تنظیم احساسات کودکان : زمینه اجتماعی، اجتماعی کردن و تنظیم
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|38827||2008||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7197 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Biological Psychology, Volume 79, Issue 3, December 2008, Pages 299–306
Abstract Effective emotion regulation is essential for children's positive development. Polyvagal theory provides a framework for understanding how parasympathetic regulation of cardiac activity contributes to children's adaptive versus maladaptive functioning. Maintenance of cardiac respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) under social challenge should support emotion regulation and behavioral adjustment. Children's effective parasympathetic regulation and behavioral adjustment should be supported by appropriate parental socialization. These proposals were evaluated in a short-term longitudinal study of 94 preschool-aged children. Parenting and basal RSA were measured at home, then 6–10 months later behavioral adjustment and RSA in lab baseline and socially challenging contexts were measured. Children with relatively higher RSA in social challenge than at baseline (ΔRSA) had fewer internalizing problems (IP) and externalizing problems (EP), and better behavioral self-regulation (SR). Mothers who used more negative control had children with lower ΔRSA, more IP and EP, and less SR. Structural equation modeling showed that vagal regulation mediated associations between maternal negative control and children's adjustment; maternal negative control did not predict EP or SR after accounting for ΔRSA. Associations were consistent across boys and girls, with one exception: Higher ΔRSA was significantly associated with fewer EP in boys only. These findings suggest that the practical significance of physiological regulation might be best revealed in ecologically valid procedures, and that children's physiological mechanisms of emotion regulation are shaped by their experiences of parental socialization.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Results 5.1. Preliminary analyses 5.1.1. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia The activity monitors of the Mini-Loggers recorded almost no gross motor movement in children for HB, low activity in some children for LB, and at least some activity in all children for SG. Physical activity can affect mean heart period (HP). LB activity was not significantly correlated with LB RSA, r = −.09, although SG activity was weakly correlated with SG RSA, r = −.17, p = .10. To remove the contributions of activity to children's vagal scores, LB and SG activity were regressed onto LB and SG RSA, respectively, and the standardized residuals were used as the indices of LB and SG RSA, independent of gross motor movement. These RSA values were then used to measure children's RSA change from LB to SG, using residualized change scores (e.g., Krantz et al., 1996 and Nazzaro et al., 2005). LB RSA and SG RSA were significantly positively correlated, r = .76, p < .001; therefore, the standardized residual of the prediction of SG RSA from LB RSA was an appropriate index of change in vagal tone (ΔRSA) under social challenge conditions. Children with higher ΔRSA scores had higher SG RSA, after accounting for individual differences in children's LB RSA. Vagal suppression (lower SG RSA than LB RSA) was shown by 52 children, and 42 children had vagal augmentation (higher SG RSA than LB RSA). 5.1.2. Parenting Descriptive statistics for observed and reported maternal and paternal parenting are reported in Table 1. The observed parenting data were positively skewed for mothers’ narrative Supportive and all three Critical/Negative scores, and for fathers’ clean-up Positive and all three Critical/Negative scores. Square-root transformations were applied, but nine outliers remained. Three scores for mothers’ narratives Critical/Negative and three scores for mothers’ origami Critical/Negative, and one score for fathers’ narratives Critical/Negative and two scores for fathers’ origami Critical/Negative, were brought to within 3 standard deviations of score means. The transformations and corrections to outliers removed the skews. Table 1. Descriptive statistics for observed and reported parenting by mothers and fathers parenting Mothers Fathers M S.D. M S.D. Observed Narratives Supportive .21 .13 .22 .17 Critical/Negative .03 .10 .09 .19 Origami Instructive 1.94 .44 1.97 .49 Positive 1.44 .30 1.38 .24 Critical/Negative 1.13 .17 1.07 .10 Clean-up Positive .13 .10 .11 .10 Encourage .14 .08 .17 .08 Critical/Negative .08 .01 .01 .02 Reported parenting Supportive 5.93 .46 5.91 .47 Restrictive over-control 2.66 .48 2.86 .51 Notes: N = 94 for all maternal parenting variables, N = 77 for all paternal parenting variables. Time-proportionalized means, based on length of procedure, are reported for observed parenting variables. Table options Four confirmatory factor analyses were used to determine whether the five scores for observed supportive parenting and three scores for observed Critical/Negative parenting could be aggregated for mothers and for fathers. Single factor solutions were supported in each analysis. For supportive parenting for mothers and fathers, respectively, eigenvalue = 1.76 and 1.79, Variance = 35.25% and 35.83%, mean factor loadings = .58 and .57. For Critical/Negative parenting for mothers and fathers, respectively, eigenvalue = 1.24 and 1.31, Variance = 41.26% and 43.61%, mean factor loadings = .52 and .66. To generate the observed supportive parenting scores, the Supportive score from narratives, Positive and Instructive scores from origami, and Positive and Encouraging scores from clean-up were z-transformed and averaged. To generate the Critical/Negative parenting scores, the three Critical/Negative scores from narratives, origami and clean-up were z-transformed and averaged. Mothers’ and fathers’ self-reported supportive parenting was significantly, positively correlated with their observed supportive parenting, r = .26 and .29, respectively, both p < .05. Mothers’ self-reported restrictive control was significantly, positively correlated with their observed Critical/Negative parenting, r = .24, p < .05, although fathers’ self-reported and observed negative control were not significantly correlated, r = .07. (Although low in magnitude, this level of correspondence between independent measures of parenting is typical of multi-method studies, e.g., Janssens et al., 2005.) To create multi-method aggregate scores for parental Supportiveness and Negative Control, reported and observed parenting scores were standardized via z-transformation, and corresponding scores were averaged. 5.2. Descriptive analyses and associations between RSA and adjustment Descriptive statistics and one-tailed first-order correlations for children's RSA and adjustment measures are provided in Table 2. Boys and girls did not differ significantly in any measures of RSA or ΔRSA, or adjustment problems, all |t| < 1.50. Girls had greater SR scores, M = 5.30, S.D. = 0.61, than boys, M = 5.00, S.D. = 0.53, t(92) = 2.55, p < .05. Older preschoolers had higher HB RSA, LB RSA and SG RSA, r = .23, .22 and .23, respectively, p < .05, but age was not associated with ΔRSA, r = .09, or any measures of behavioral adjustment, all |r| < .13. Table 2. Descriptive statistics and one-tailed first-order correlations for children's RSA and adjustment measures M S.D. 2 3 4 5 6 7 1. Home Baseline RSA 5.30 1.33 .53*** .53*** .20* −.15+ −.03 −.06 2. Lab Baseline RSA 5.14 1.18 .76*** .00 −.05 .13 −.04 3. Social Group RSA 5.19 1.10 .66*** .09 −.03 −.16+ 4. ΔRSA 0.05 0.85 .19* −.21* −.21* 5. Self-regulation 5.17 0.59 −.63*** −.45*** 6. Externalizing Problems 48.53 10.31 .69*** 7. Internalizing Problems 49.99 10.75 Notes: N = 94 for all variables. Descriptive statistics for LB RSA and SG RSA are prior to controlling activity levels. Descriptive statistics for ΔRSA are based on arithmetic difference score (SG RSA–LB RSA). Standardized residuals of LB and SG RSA after controlling activity levels, and residualized change score in RSA from LB to SG, controlling for activity, were used in all analyses, including correlation statistics reported in this table and Table 1. * p < .05. *** p < .001. Table options HB RSA, LB RSA and SG RSA were all positively inter-correlated. As well, children with higher basal RSA at home also had higher ΔRSA. As expected, only ΔRSA was significantly associated with adjustment. After accounting for basal RSA and activity levels, children with higher RSA in the social group context had fewer EP and IP, and greater SR. Because Age was significantly positively correlated with HB, LB and SG RSA, analyses were re-examined using partial correlations, controlling for Age. None of the identified significant associations were reduced; all remained significant at p < .05 or less. 5.3. Associations between RSA and adjustment and maternal and paternal parenting Boys and girls did not differ significantly on any measures of parenting, all |t| < 1.90, nor was age significantly correlated with maternal or paternal parenting, all |r| < .15. Because Age was significantly positively correlated with HB, LB and SG RSA, one-tailed partial correlations, controlling for age of child, between the four parenting scores and measures of children's RSA and adjustment are reported in Table 3. SG RSA and ΔRSA were negatively correlated with maternal Negative Control. As expected, mothers who used more Negative Control had children with lower vagal regulation in the social challenge context. Considering the associations between parenting and adjustment, mothers who used more Supportive parenting and less Negative Control had children with better SR, fewer EP and fewer IP. None of the partial correlations between paternal parenting and children's RSA and adjustment were significant. Table 3. One-tailed partial correlations between children's RSA and their adjustment and parenting, controlling for age of child Mother Father Supportive Negative Supportive Negative HB RSA .08 −.17+ .02 −.18+ LB RSA .07 −.06 .07 .00 SG RSA .15+ −.20* .10 −.11 ΔRSA .14 −.23* .07 −.17+ Self-regulation .38*** −.17* .18+ −.14 Externalizing Problems −.27** .22* .01 .15 Internalizing Problems −.29** .33*** −.05 .16+ Notes: N = 94 for correlations between maternal parenting and RSA and adjustment. N = 77 for correlations between paternal parenting and RSA and adjustment. RSA = Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, controlling for activity level; HB = home baseline; LB = laboratory baseline; SG = social group; ΔRSA = residualized change score from LB RSA to SG RSA. + p < .10. * p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001. Table options 5.4. Did children's vagal regulation mediate associations between parenting and adjustment? Children with lower ΔRSA had more EP and IP, displayed less SR, and experienced more maternal Negative Control. Mothers who used more Negative Control had children with more EP and IP, and who tended to show less SR. Thus, these relations met the criteria for tests of mediation effects (Baron and Kenny, 1986). SEM was used to examine whether ΔRSA mediated the relations between maternal Negative Control and children's EP, IP and SR. Three models were compared: An unmediated model, in which maternal Negative Control predicted child adjustment indices without ΔRSA in the model; a fully mediated model, in which Negative Control predicted ΔRSA, which in turn predicted child adjustment indices; and a partially mediated model, including both direct relations between Negative Control and adjustment and relations mediated by ΔRSA. Age of child was controlled in all models, and the correlations between EP, IP and SR were included in all models. Goodness of fit criteria for the unmediated model, not including ΔRSA, showed poor fit, model fit χ2(5) = 9.70, p = .08, fit for the baseline model χ2(14) = 133.53, p < .01, RMSEA = .100, CFI = .96. The fully mediated model also did not fit the data well, model fit χ2(3) = 10.38, p = .02, fit for the baseline model χ2(14) = 133.53, p < .01, RMSEA = .162, CFI = .94. A partially mediated model, in which ΔRSA fully mediated relations between Negative Control and EP and SR, and partially mediated relations between Negative Control and IP, showed the best goodness of fit (see Fig. 1), model fit χ2(2) = 2.17, p = .33, fit for the baseline model χ2(14) = 133.53, p < .01, RMSEA = .03, CFI = .99. Maternal Negative Control significantly predicted ΔRSA and IP, ΔRSA significantly predicted EP, and the path from ΔRSA to SR approached significance. The path from ΔRSA to IP was non-significant (p = .12), but excluding it slightly weakened the model (model χ2(3) = 4.55, p = .21, RMSEA = .07, CFI = .99). Vagal regulation to the social challenge task partially mediated the predictions ... Fig. 1. Vagal regulation to the social challenge task partially mediated the predictions of child adjustment from maternal negativity. Notes: +p < .10, *p < .05, **p < .01, RSA = respiratory sinus arrhythmia, Age of child controlled. Figure options 5.5. Did boys and girls differ in the relations between vagal regulation and adjustment or parenting? The χ2 difference test was used to examine whether the path weights in the final, partially mediated model differed significantly between boys and girls. The fit criteria for the fully constrained model, in which all paths were constrained to have equal weighting for boys and girls, were compared to the fit criteria of a series of five partially constrained models. In each partially constrained model, one of the five paths was unconstrained such that the path weight could vary between boys and girls. (Paths for the inter-correlations of SR, EP and IP were included in the models, but not examined for sex differences.) Only one comparison led to a significantly better model fit, as shown by the χ2 difference test, χ2(1) = 4.02, p < .05; the model fit the data better when the path from ΔRSA to EP was allowed to vary. This path was significant for boys, β = −.42, p < .05, but not girls, β = −.06. Thus, vagal dysregulation to the social group context was associated with EP in boys only.