تنظیم احساسات، تعویق و تماشای آنلاین فیلم گربه:چه کسی گربه های اینترنتی را تماشا می کند، چرا،و برای کدام تاثیری؟
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|38871||2015||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 52, November 2015, Pages 168–176
Abstract Anecdotes abound about the frequent use of the Internet to view cat-related media. Yet, research has yet to seriously address this popular culture phenomenon rooted largely in social media platforms. It is possible that viewing of online cat media improves mood, but this activity may also foster negative outcomes linked to using the Internet for procrastination. The present survey of Internet users (N = 6795) explored the correlates of viewing “Internet cats,” motivations for consuming this media, and its potential effects on users. It also tested a conceptual model predicting enjoyment as a function of the relationships between procrastination, guilt, and happiness. Results reveal significant relationships between viewing and personality types and demonstrate conceptual nuances related to the emotional benefits of watching Internet cats.
Introduction Anecdotes and news reports suggest that viewing videos and photos of cats is a common use of the Internet. As of 2014 there were more than 2 million cat videos posted on YouTube.com with nearly 26 billion total views (Marshall, 2014). That is an average of 12,000 views for each cat video—more views-per-video than any other category of YouTube content (Marshall, 2015). There are even annual in-person festivals devoted to “Internet cats,” including the Internet Cat Video Festival in Minneapolis and Chicago (Walker Arts Center, 2015) as well as the Los Angeles Feline Film Festival (LA Feline Film Festival, 2015). Internet users spend so much time with cat-related media they have turned household tabbies into celebrities. “Perma-kitten” Lil BUB has nearly 1.5 million Facebook fans and the constantly-frowning Grumpy Cat makes more money than many prominent human celebrities (Millward, 2014). Beyond famous cats, Internet users frequently post images of their own felines on social media platforms (Marshall, 2014), further increasing the amount of online cat-related visual content available to Internet users. In fact, industry research indicates that Internet users are more than twice as likely to post pictures or videos of cats than they are to post a “selfie” (i.e., a picture taken of oneself) online (Williams, 2014). The Internet cat phenomenon has spurred news articles with titles such as “Why do cats dominate the Internet?” (Thornton, 2013) and “The million dollar question: Why does the Web love cats?” (Elliot, 2010). Yet, very little empirical evidence exists to help answer these questions or others like them, such as what motivates people to view online cat content and what type of people are more likely to enjoy cat-related Internet content. Considering the large viewership of online cat media, this topic is understudied. Consumption of online cat-related media deserves empirical attention because, as the news accounts suggest, Internet users spend a significant amount of time consuming cat-related media, some of that while they are supposed to be doing other tasks like working or studying. If this genre is as popular as the online analytics suggest, then there are likely important effects of such media on users, particularly on their emotional states. Moreover, research on pet therapy indicates that time spent with real pets can improve mood and wellbeing across a variety of populations (Nimer & Lundahl, 2007). Research on “the media equation” argues that media users typically react to mediated content as if it were occurring in real life (Reeves & Nass, 1996). Therefore, mediated exposure to cats could possibly result in similar outcomes found in pet therapy studies, although perhaps to a lesser degree given no physical interaction with Internet cats. If viewing online cats does improve mood, such media could potentially serve as a low-cost and easily distributed intervention to (at least temporarily or at times of stress) improve emotional wellbeing. However, there are also potential negative impacts of watching Internet cats. For instance, if Internet users are watching online cat videos to procrastinate, they may instead experience guilt after looking at online cat content. Research is needed to test what exactly are the emotional benefits and drawbacks. Mood management theory and previous studies of the emotional impact of entertainment media consumption provide a conceptual basis for analyzing the potential motivations for and effects of consuming online cat content, particularly as it relates to emotional states. The present work is an exploratory study of characteristics of Internet cat media consumers, their motivations for such media use, and potential effects of use related to emotional states of the users. Furthermore, this study advances the literature related to the interrelationship between feelings of guilt and enjoyment of Internet media (i.e., the guilty pleasure) by proposing and testing a conceptual model linking procrastination, guilt, happiness, and enjoyment. This study employs a survey of Internet users to explore the Internet cat as its own media genre and to set the stage for subsequent research and theory building in this area of entertainment research. 1.1. The nature of online cat-related media consumption While digital marketing analytics and news accounts demonstrate that cat videos and images are very popular, little is known about the nature of the typical online cat-viewing experience. Critical-cultural scholars have discussed the ability of online cat videos to generate pleasure and positive affect and to promote interaction with audiences (O’Meara, 2014 and Shafer, 2014). However, empirical analysis that assesses the details surrounding who, why, and how Internet users consume online cat videos and other cat-related images is lacking. That is, how long do Internet users spend with this type of content? What websites do they turn to for it? Do they seek it out purposefully or encounter it in the course of other online activities? Do they engage with so-called celebrity cats or are they more interested in everyday felines? Does interaction with Internet cats overlap with consumption of media related to Internet dogs or other animals? These questions combine to suggest a first research question asking what, exactly, is the nature of online cat-related media consumption (RQ1). 1.2. Motivations for consuming online cat-related media In the following section, potential motivations for viewing Internet cats are discussed through the lens of mood management theory. Additionally, potential demographic and psychological predictors of enjoyment of Internet cats are outlined. 1.2.1. Mood management Despite the widespread use of the Internet for posting and consuming cat-related content, little research has addressed the questions of why Internet users seek out this content. Mood management theory (MMT) posits that individuals are motivated to consume media that will dissipate aversive emotional states or maintain positive ones (Oliver, 2003 and Zillmann, 1988). Media use can serve as a form of emotion regulation, defined as “the process by which individuals influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express these emotions” (p. 275, Gross, 1998). MMT also states that media users, often without being cognizant of the reason, select media based on its excitatory potential, absorption potential, semantic affinity, and hedonic valence. These message features, therefore, influence selective exposure to media. Internet users may seek images and videos of adorable or humorous cats in order to dissipate negative emotional states or to keep up their positive spirits. Anecdotal evidence supports this supposition. The Twitter account “Emergency Kittens” states in its profile description that its Twitter feed is designed “[f]or when you need a kitten (or other type of cat) to cheer you up!” (Emergency Kittens, 2014). The Apple iTunes Store offers consumers the opportunity to download a free application called “Cute cats – cheer you up!” (iTunes, 2015). There is even an Internet meme called “Cheer Up Cat,” which depicts an orange tabby cat that appears to be winking and smiling at the viewer (Quickmeme., 2015). Advancements in mood management research have pointed out that not all mood management motivations are hedonic—media consumers may seek affectively-laden content because it promotes connection with other people (Oliver & Raney, 2011), because the content may induce a useful emotional state for pursuing future tasks (Knobloch, 2003), or because the emotional effects of media consumption may help viewers to cope (Nabi, Finnerty, Domschke, & Hull, 2006). Because images of Internet cats are typically cute and funny in nature, hedonic valence is the message feature that may be drawing so many users to view Internet cats. These positively-toned images/videos may be a readily available way to regulate emotional states in the digital era. However, those who are already animal lovers (in particular, cat lovers) may also be drawn to the content due to semantic affinity with their real pets. Moreover, research has shown that depletion can motivate individuals to turn to entertainment media (Reinecke, Hartmann, & Eden, 2014), and because of its jovial nature, Internet cats may have just enough excitatory potential to animate its audiences. 1.2.2. Procrastination In addition to mood management motivations for viewing online cat-related media, news accounts suggests that many people watch cat videos online to avoid work or unpleasant tasks (FlorCruz, 2013 and Garber, 2012). While online cat media is generally humorous or adorable, it may bring with it hedonic pleasures but little educational or utilitarian gains. Research on general motivations for media use also points to procrastination as a reason why individuals watch entertainment media. To procrastinate is to “voluntarily delay an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay” (p. 66, Steel, 2007). If viewed during work hours, Internet cats may be thought of as a form of “cyberslacking,” where people use media for personal purposes during work hours (Vitak, Crouse, & LaRose, 2011). Even after work hours, entertainment media may be motivated by a need or desire to procrastinate. Reinecke et al. (2014) found that after a draining day at work or school, individuals in their survey turned to entertainment media as a way to procrastinate. Media use as a form of procrastination, in turn, was related to increased feelings of guilt for having not done more important or meaningful tasks. The prevalence of procrastination behaviors appears to be increasing (Steel, 2007), alongside an increasing number of digital media options for avoiding work and other responsibilities (Hinsch & Sheldon, 2013). Research has also found a link between Internet use and guilt (Panek, 2014). It is likely that some Internet users may very well interpret Internet cats as a form of procrastination, with emotional implications if prior research holds true within the genre of online cat-related media. 1.2.3. Individual differences Researchers have connected individual personality traits with greater levels of Internet use and with an affinity for felines. Therefore, certain types of individuals may be more likely to view and enjoy online cat media than others. Traits such as introversion and shyness are associated with greater Internet usage ( Ebeling-Witte, Frank, & Lester, 2007), while introversion has also been tied to a preference for cats over dogs ( Guastello, Braun, Gutierrez, Johnston, & Olbinski, 2014). It is possible that introverts who are drawn to the Internet may be likewise drawn to Internet cats, with cats often categorized as solitary, even anti-social pets as compared to dogs ( Kleiman & Eisenberg, 1973). However, it is unclear if this personality trait would translate to the Internet context of mediated cats, or if any of the other four of the “Big 5” personality traits—agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experiences ( Costa and MacCrae, 1992 and Gosling et al., 2003)—are related to viewing Internet cats. Shyness is another personality trait that has been tied to general Internet use and introversion ( Ebeling-Witte et al., 2007) as well as to social media use ( Orr et al., 2009), and therefore may likewise be related to consumption of online cat-related media. Emotional wellbeing may also be a factor related to the type of Internet users who enjoy Internet cats. If certain Internet users are doing well and are generally happy, then they may be drawn to cute or funny content that could guarantee they will remain in their generally positive state. However, it is also possible that individuals who are not doing well or receiving adequate emotional support from those around them may turn to online cat media as a way to generate more positive emotions. Research on Internet use finds a small but negative relationship between amount of time spent online and emotional wellbeing (i.e., depression, loneliness, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) (Huang, 2010). Therefore, variables such as emotional wellbeing and amount of affective support one receives may also predict greater online cat media consumption, although it is not clear in what direction. Between these variables, personality traits, and demographic measures, it remains an empirical question as to which characteristics of Internet users predict enjoyment of cat videos and/or photos (RQ2). 1.3. Potential effects of viewing internet cats While mood management, procrastination, and individual differences in personality or situation may be driving Internet users to sites containing cat-related content, it is also important to consider the potential effects of this content on individuals. Positive emotional responses, as well as being entertained, may be likely reactions to viewing cute or funny cats. Preliminary evidence suggests that this type of media consumption can also increase cognitive, emotional, and behavioral resources for post-viewing behaviors. Researchers have found viewing images of cute animals (including kittens and puppies), promotes attention to detail and behavioral carefulness (Nittono et al., 2012 and Sherman et al., 2009). Sherman et al. posit that this effect is an evolutionarily adaptive one that promotes caring for young children. Yet, the attention-promoting power of viewing cute images may also help explain why Internet users are attracted to images of felines because it reenergizes them and helps them be more attentive to subsequent tasks. Additionally, literature on pet therapy indicates that the physical presence of animals or pets (i.e., animal assisted therapy) can have benefits for emotional wellbeing (Halm, 2008, Kaminski et al., 2002 and Nimer and Lundahl, 2007). For instance, Kaminski, Pellino, and Wish found that pet therapy in pediatric hospitals helped improve the mood of sick children and those children displayed more positive affect than did children who did not participate in pet therapy. A meta-analysis on the effects of animal assisted therapy conducted by Nimer and Lundahl found this increase in positive emotions was no fluke. Across the 49 studies, the authors found moderate effect sizes in improving outcomes related to Autism-spectrum symptoms, medical difficulties, behavioral problems, and emotional wellbeing (i.e., decreases in anxiety, depression, or fear). Animal assisted interventions are also associated with physical and mental health benefits such as improvements in blood pressure, heart rate, and salivary immunoglobulin A levels alongside decreases in depression, anxiety, and loneliness (Morrison, 2007). The aforementioned research suggests that viewing Internet cats will increase users’ positive emotional states and decrease negative emotional states (H1). Another potential emotional response to the consumption of online cat-related media is the aforementioned guilt resulting from spending time on less-than-productive media content instead of doing more important or useful tasks (Panek, 2014 and Reinecke et al., 2014). Moreover, using the Internet to procrastinate has been linked to problematic forms of Internet use (Thatcher, Wretschko, & Fridjhon, 2008). Reinecke et al. also found that the increase in guilt from using media as a form of procrastination was negatively related to enjoyment of entertainment media (and to vitality and recovery experience). In addition to Reinecke et al.’s (2014) work, research on media use as a form of “guilty pleasure” has examined how reality television show consumption is driven by voyeurism (Baruh, 2010) and how a lack of self-control is correlated with higher levels of digital media use and stronger feelings of guilt (Panek, 2014). However, these studies have not tested the role of positive emotional reactions to entertainment media, such as happiness, as a moderator of the guilt–enjoyment relationship. Vorderer (2001) argues that viewing entertainment media is a largely pleasant and joyful experience. As such, the positive emotional benefit from consuming positively valenced entertainment media, like Internet cats, could moderate the relationship between post-viewing guilt and decreased enjoyment such that higher post-viewing happiness would lead to more enjoyment than when the viewer experiences less joy after media consumption (H2). See Fig. 1 for a conceptual model configuring these variables in a moderated-mediation relationship. Conceptual model. Note: The model predicts that viewing entertainment media as a ... Fig. 1. Conceptual model. Note: The model predicts that viewing entertainment media as a form of procrastination will be positively related to post-viewing guilt, which will subsequently decrease perceptions of enjoyment of the content. However, the positive emotional benefit of viewing the entertainment content (i.e., post-viewing happiness) should moderate the relationship between guilt and enjoyment such that higher levels of happiness decrease guilt’s negative impact on enjoyment.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
. Conclusion Humans domesticated felines 10,000 years ago (Driscoll, Clutton-Brock, Kitchener, & O’Brien, 2009). Ever since, the domestic cat has been the subject of images and artwork and played various roles in culture, society, and media (Rogers, 2001). In the modern era of digital media, it is hard to deny that cats have clawed their way into the zeitgeist of the Internet. While the topic of online cat-related media consumption may seem, on the surface, a lighthearted one for serious academic inquiry, the global popularity of such media and the historical roots of feline-focused media should encourage Internet, media, and psychology researchers to take note. This study found that cat-related content is a popular form of online media with the potential to improve users’ moods or to delay more important tasks. The results of this survey provide valuable insights as to why Internet users so frequently view online cat-related content, which users are more likely to enjoy such content, what emotional benefits and drawbacks are associated with this viewing, and the relationship between procrastination, guilt, and happiness in impacting enjoyment of entertainment media. Future work can build upon these initial results to test causal connections between emotional states and the effects of viewing Internet cats as well as test the use of online cat media as a potential low-cost intervention to improve emotional wellbeing. Meanwhile, millions of Internet users will be watching YouTube videos of Henri le Chat Noir, scrolling through BuzzFeed lists of the cutest cat posts on Instagram, and commenting on Lil BUB’s Facebook photos.