سیستم های کامپیوتری برای تسهیل یادگیری سازمانی: فناوری اطلاعات و بافت سازمانی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3911||2003||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4591 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 24, Issue 3, 1 April 2003, Pages 273–280
A comprehensive model that delineates the interrelationships among computer systems, organizational context and organizational learning is absent. This study aims to fill this void. Unlike previous research, this study investigates the role of computer systems, i.e. organizational learning computer systems (OLCS), in facilitating organizational learning. In our framework, we argued that contextual variables mediated the impact of OLCS on organizational learning. In order to test the feasibility of this framework, we conducted an empirical study. This study employed a survey instrument, which contained data collected from 500 organizations in manufacturing, service industry, and academic institutions. A total of 165 usable responses were analyzed. The results indicate that OLCS have a positive impact on the organizational learning processes. Both ‘problem characteristic’ and ‘organizational culture’ moderate the influence of OLCS on organizational learning. The implications of the study are provided, and future research is suggested.
A comprehensive framework concerning organizational learning has been proposed by Huber (1991). This framework identified four constructs, which are crucial to the effectiveness of organizational learning; they are knowledge acquisition, information distribution, information interpretation, and organizational memory. Since Huber's comprehensive view of organizational learning theory was published, at least four researchers have referenced this framework in conducting related studies (Goodman and Darr, 1998, Hernes, 1999, Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995 and Robey et al., 2000). However, other researchers criticized that Huber's framework did not examine the role of computer systems for acquiring knowledge and enhancing the effect of organizational learning. They have proved that computer systems are changing many organizational processes including communication (Kiesler & Sproull, 1987), group decision making (Kiesler, Siegel, & McGuire, 1984), coordination (Rice & Shook, 1990), and collaborative work (Kraut, Galegher, Fish, & Chalfonte, 1992). Despite previously mentioned criticism, there are relatively few field studies that examine the effect of computer systems on facilitating organizational learning (Constant et al., 1996, Goodman and Darr, 1998 and Orlikowski, 1993a). Orlikowski (1993b) argued that ‘organizational context’, such as corporate strategies and structure and culture, is one of the critical factors that influence the adoption and using of IT. A similar concept was presented in Orlikowski (1993a), which reveals that a number of organizational elements, such as mental models (which affect how people understand and appreciate IT) and structural properties (reward systems and workplace norms), significantly influence the implementation and usage of IT. Although several researchers (Orlikowski, 1993a, Orlikowski, 1993b, Dutton and Dukerich, 1991 and Henderson and Clark, 1990) have investigated the impact of organizational context on the applicability of IT in an organization, there are relatively few empirical studies that examine the role of organizational context, which serves as a moderator between IT and organizational learning. The purposes of this study are: (a) to examine the role of computer system in facilitating organizational learning; (b) to realize the impact of organizational context on the effect of adopting OLCS to facilitate organizational learning.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study investigated the role of computer systems, i.e. an OLCS, in facilitating organizational learning. Based on 165 respondents from organizations in manufacturing, the service industry, and academic institutions, we found that the functions of OLCS have a positive impact on the organizational learning processes. We also examined the impact of organizational context on the adopting of computer systems to facilitate organizational learning. Two interesting results were found. First, the complexity of problems within an organization is negatively related to the effect of adopting OLCS to facilitate organizational learning. Second, the culture of encouraging creativity within an organization is positively related to the effect of adopting OLCS to facilitate organizational learning. Unlike previous research, this paper examines the impact of computer systems on organizational learning in a more comprehensive way. First, we extended the IT features proposed by previous researchers (Goodman and Darr, 1998, Walsh and Ungson, 1991 and Constant et al., 1996), and proved that these functions of OLCS all have a positive impact on organizational learning. These functions of OLCS include multimedia style of information presentations, synchronous and asynchronous of information transfer (Goodman & Darr, 1998), bandwidth of information transmission, anonymity of sender, information indexing and sorting (Walsh & Ungson, 1991), and variety of functions to acquire, update, and manage knowledge for easy retrieval. Second, we conducted an empirical study to specify the organizational context that mediates the influences of the adoption of OLCS on facilitating organizational learning. Some researchers (Scott, 2000, Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995, Goodman and Darr, 1998 and Orlikowski, 1993a) claimed the importance of such intervening conditions, such as trust, organizational structure, but did not specifically identify ‘problem complexity’ and ‘culture’ and proved their impact empirically as our study did. The research results support the theoretical framework shown in Fig. 1. By emphasizing the features of OLCS, we may facilitate the effect of organizational learning. On the other hand, we cannot overlook some salient organizational contexts while adopting IT, since it may increase or decrease the effect of organizational learning. The implications of this study are three-fold. First, this research explores the IT features that may facilitate organizational learning. Some of the features are new in supporting organizational learning. Understanding the features of IT that facilitate organizational learning is very helpful for management. Managers should emphasize the exploiting of IT capabilities; yet realize both its short-term and long-term limitations. Second, understanding the characteristics of the organizational learning process in an IT-based environment may help us to design the facilitating mechanisms accordingly. The difference of the organizational learning process between an IT-based and regular environment is therefore worthy of future research. Finally, most of the previous researchers ignore the effect of the intervening conditions that may influence the effect of IT adoption. Our empirical study identified two such important intervening conditions: problem characteristics and culture. In order to obtain the most effective way of organizational learning, it is crucial that managers develop an OLCS adopting strategy, which combines technology exploration and organizational context. Future studies may examine other contextual variables, such as organizational structure, management style, rewards etc. Moreover, identifying ‘why’ and ‘in what situations’ the organization context may intervene the adoption of OLCS to facilitate organizational learning will be another interesting topic.