ترکیب خانواده و شرکت : ادراک کارکنان از هوموفیلی درک شده، عدالت سازمانی، هویت سازمانی و تعهد سازمانی در کسب و کار خانوادگی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|3940||2010||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Family Business Strategy, Volume 1, Issue 4, December 2010, Pages 210–223
Social identity theory has been applied to many organizational contexts, including family businesses. However, the current study is one of the first to explore the organizational identification of non-family member employees. Based on previous research, it seems likely that, for family business employees, organizational identification mediates the relationship between organizational justice, homophily, and commitment. This study proposes a model of identification for family business employees based on these considerations. Although the current study did not confirm the proposed model, an alternative model is discussed.
Extant research has established a strong connection between employee commitment and firm productivity and performance (Muse et al., 2005 and Whitfield and Poole, 1997). Organizational commitment is a strong belief in the organization's goals and values, a willingness to work on behalf of the organization, and a desire to maintain membership in the organization (Porter, Steers, Mowday, & Boulian, 1974). This sense of commitment among employees could be used not only to preserve the longevity of their businesses, but also to create a positive working environment for employees. Whether employees perceptions of how similar they see themselves to other employees and whether they believe they are treated fairly should affect how identified and committed they become to their organizations. Perceptions of organizational justice and homophily likely will contribute to how connected individuals feel with the family businesses for which they work. Previous research has found strong, positive correlation between perceptions of organizational justice and perceptions of co-worker identification, satisfaction, and support as well as affective commitment (Byrne, 2003, Cohen-Charash and Spector, 2001 and Colquitt et al., 2001). While prior research has focused on these constructs within the context of non-family firms, little to no research has addressed them within a family business context. Organizational identification has been researched in family businesses. However, much of previous research only considers the identity development and identity conflict of family member employees (Dyer and Whetten, 2006, Reay, 2009, Shepherd and Haynie, 2009a, Shepherd and Haynie, 2009b and Sundaramurthy and Kreiner, 2008), as they are the employees who constantly struggle to manage their family and organizational identities simultaneously within their family businesses. However, more than 80% of employees of family businesses are non-family members (Mass Mutual, 2007). It is likely that non-family member employees struggle to find their “place” within the family business for which they work as they do not necessarily have in-group status due to their lack of membership in the founding family. Therefore, research needs to consider how this identity development process may affect all family business employees, not just those related to the founding family. Recently, scholars have begun to examine the role of non-family member employees (Astrachan and Keyt, 2003, Barnett and Kellermans, 2006 and Chua et al., 2003). Family and non-family employees compare themselves to each other as they develop their roles and identities within their organizations. Non-family employees within family businesses likely provide additional challenges non-family firms may not face in terms of creating a strong sense of identification and commitment among family and non-family members alike. The development of family and business identities as either separate or integrated entities of family member employees affects non-family employees’ perceptions and work experiences. If the founding family's family and business identities are seen as integrated, non-family employees may be given limited access to managerial opportunities, limited contributions to organizational decision-making, and limited presence on governing boards (Lubatkin et al., 2005 and Schulze et al., 2003b). On the other hand, if the founding family's family and business identities are viewed as separate, non-family employees are likely to have a larger, more important presence in family businesses (Sundaramurthy & Kreiner, 2008). Other research suggests family businesses should develop a “family business meta-identity” addressing who they are as a family business, rather than developing who they are as a family and who they are as a business separately (Reay, 2009 and Shepherd and Haynie, 2009a). If they are able to do this, family businesses will be more likely to be able to create a strong sense of organizational identification and commitment where all family business employees perceive themselves as not only similar in values, beliefs and attitudes, but as also treated fairly within the organization. To understand more thoroughly how family business employees come to identify with and come to be committed to their family businesses, we decided to draw on social identity theory (SIT), based in intergroup theory (Tajfel, 1982). Social identity theory explains how individuals compare themselves to members of their social groups as well as to other social groups (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) in order to develop a series of social identities, including their organizational identities. Family business employees must compare themselves to both non-family member and family member employees in order to develop their unique identities and come to identify with their organizations. Family business employees are likely to form their perceptions of organizational identification and commitment based on their perceptions of how they are treated within their family businesses and whether or not that treatment varies among employees. Employees will likely focus on their perceptions of organizational justice and homophily to determine how connected to their organizations they feel. Organizational justice is the perception of whether individuals are treated with respect based on the decision-makers and the policies in their organizations (Colquitt, 2001 and Scott et al., 2007). Similarly, individuals base their perceptions of homophily on how similar they see their attitudes, values, and backgrounds to others in their organizations (Lazarsfeld and Merton, 1954 and McCroskey et al., 1975). See Table 1 for more clarification of the current study's constructs.When employees identify with their family business, they are likely to be committed to the family business as identification has been linked to both work satisfaction and lower turnover rates, and, ultimately, commitment (van Dick et al., 2004). Employees’ perceptions that they are members of a cohesive organization tend to lead to a more productive workplace (Fleming, 2000 and Richter et al., 2004). Therefore, through addressing family business employees’ perceptions of justice and homophily, both researchers and practitioners may come to better understand their experiences in order to create better working environments within family businesses. To this end, the current study tests test whether one's status as a family member or non-family member employee affects perceptions of organizational justice, homophily, organizational identification, and commitment. Further, it will also test whether organizational identification mediates the relationship between organization justice and homophily and organizational commitment.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study provides several implications for family businesses. This study suggests that family member and non-family member employees do not differ in their perceptions of organizational justice, homophily, organizational identification, and commitment. Previous research has suggested that employees who perceive themselves to be a part of a cohesive organization are likely to develop positive organizational identities as well as to develop feelings of organization identification (Bartel and Dutton, 2001 and Richter et al., 2004). Therefore, in order to develop a positive sense of organizational identification, family businesses should treat their employees similarly and strive to develop a positive working environment. This can be done by paying particular attention to organizational justice and fostering a sense homophily of among employees. In order to develop a sense of cohesion among employees, family businesses should ensure they are treating their employees equally and fairly. Perceptions of organizational justice can be fostered through not only treating all employees with respect, but also by thoroughly explaining the organizational decision-making processes (Colquitt, 2001). Family businesses should be cognizant of ensuring their non-family members are informed of key decisions and that they are involved in the organizational processes, even if they are not privy to family interactions about the business. Family businesses should strive to encourage a sense of homophily through encouraging all employees to spend time together in both work and social settings in order to get to know each other better. By encouraging employees to develop positive relationships, they are likely to see ways in which they are similar in attitudes, values, and beliefs that will affect their workplace experiences. By being aware of issues related to organizational justice and encouraging a sense of homophily among all employees, family businesses will likely encourage a greater sense of identification and commitment among their employees.