یادگیری سازمانی و جهت گیری بازار: رابط و اثرات آن بر عملکرد
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|3946||2005||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 34, Issue 3, April 2005, Pages 187–202
This paper discusses the relationship between market orientation and organizational learning and, in particular, the former's contribution to the generation of double-loop learning. Although prior contributions on this topic have been controversial, the authors, departing from the principles of RBV, consider market orientation a resource capable of generating higher order organizational learning and, in this way, capable of additionally reinforcing firms' sustainable competitive advantage. The empirical study provides evidence on the existing relationship between a firm's learning and market orientation degree and the organization's economic and non-economic results. Findings indicate that learning orientation stimulates the market-oriented behavior and that it also positively affects the establishment of long-term relationships with strategic clients. Contrary to prior research a significant and positive effect on business performance is only contrasted in the case of market orientation.
Marketing research has recently incorporated the study of the principles of the resource based view of the firm (RBV) theory in order to identify the potential sources of sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) pertaining to the discipline domain. This research trend dives in the explanations of marketing effects on performance and their contribution to SCA (Day, 1994b). Among marketing resources, the role of market orientation has been specially acknowledged due to the accumulated evidence regarding its positive effects on business performance (Avlonitis & Gounaris, 1999, Jaworski & Kohli, 1993, Narver & Slater, 1990 and Pelham & Wilson, 1996). In addition, the interface existing between some traditionally recognized organizational resources, such as organizational learning and market orientation—as one distinctive resource within the marketing discipline—, has also arisen interest among academics (Baker & Sinkula, 1999, Day, 1994a, Dickson, 1996, Hunt & Morgan, 1995, Hunt & Morgan, 1996, Sinkula et al., 1997 and Slater & Narver, 1995). Thus, two deeply interrelated questions have risen in this field of research. One addresses whether market orientation is the foundation for organizational learning or vice versa. In this question another discussion is implicit and refers to whether market orientation alone has the ability to produce generative organizational learning—the true source of sustainable competitive advantage. This debate contributes to analyze the power of market orientation as a root for SCA. The other refers to the resultant existing relationship between market orientation and learning orientation—an indirect measure of the firms' learning capability through the values routinely associated to it—, as well as to the effects of both variables on organizational performance (Bell, Whitwell, & Lukas, 2002). Both aspects are discussed in the literature although there is no consensus on the topic. With reference to the first aspect, Baker and Sinkula (1999) consider that market orientation is a necessary, but not sufficient condition to achieve higher order organizational learning, unless it is accompanied by a strong learning orientation. Given that these authors analyze the market orientation concept from its behavioral perspective their argument may be summarized by saying that market-oriented behavior must be accompanied by the values represented by the learning orientation to achieve double-loop learning. Slater and Narver (1995), however, consider market orientation as a key element of organizational culture that stimulates organizational learning, becoming an antecedent of the latter, but that must also be accompanied by another key element of the firms' culture (entrepreneurship) to guarantee higher order learning to occur. It seems then that market orientation is not enough for organizations to truly learn. Since the ability of an organization to learn faster than competitors may be the only source of SCA (DeGeus, 1988) this position diminishes the potential market orientation contribution to efficiently compete. Finally, Day (1994a) considers that organizational learning acts as an antecedent of market-oriented behavior stimulating it. The establishment of the appropriate measures of organizational learning is one of the major challenges in this research field. As Slater and Narver observe (1995, p. 72) “how does a person assess whether an organization has actually learned?”. An indirect way to approach firms' learning is to measure their degree of learning orientation, that is, the presence of the values inherent in learning capability. Then it can be posed how both constructs—learning and market orientation—interrelate, and even more, how they affect business performance. In this sense, Baker and Sinkula (1999) consider that market orientation and learning orientation are basically two distinct organizational characteristics that affect MIP “market information processing” activity, but whereas market orientation affects the scope of this activity, learning orientation affects the way the information is analyzed (e.g. challenging the organizational norms and promoting paradigm shifts). These authors do not establish any causal relationship between market and learning orientation but they test their direct and synergistic effect on business performance reinforcing the SCA attainment. Farrell (2000), however, following Slater and Narver's (1995) conceptual model, found that a higher degree of market orientation culture is positively related to the firms' level of learning orientation and that both variables individually lead to superior business performance. However, if a learning organization, given its ability to learn about its markets, can effectively behave as market oriented (Day, 1994a), a firm's learning orientation—as an indirect manifestation of the learning capability—may also positively affect market-oriented behavior. This reasoning represents a new shift in the analysis of learning and market orientation interface which ultimately suggests a high degree of mutually dependence between both concepts. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate raised in the literature, questioning some of the arguments put forward in prior research in relation to the organizational learning and market orientation interface. More specifically, the paper aims to (a) theoretically justify how market orientation can be considered a resource capable of generating higher order organizational learning, which reinforces the understanding of how market orientation contributes to firms' effectiveness, (b) obtain empirical evidence on firms' learning orientation effect on market-oriented behavior, (c) analyze these concepts' effect on firms' performance and (d) examine the effects of learning orientation on other valuable marketing capabilities, such as the establishment of long-term collaborative relationships. This is intended to obtain further understanding of the effects of a learning orientation on the marketing domain. In this sense, the stimulus of learning orientation on key variables of relationship marketing such us trust and commitment is analyzed introducing the effects of learning orientation on the so called non-economic results. The article is organized as follows. First, the debate regarding the market orientation ability to generate higher order organizational learning is addressed. Second, the conceptual model regarding the market and learning orientation's mutual interaction and their interplay with organizational outcomes is presented. Third, the method used to test the hypotheses is discussed. Finally, the results derived from 272 Spanish medium and large manufacturing firms are presented. The paper concludes by discussing implications for practice, identifying limitations of the study and providing directions for future research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This work is placed in the context of the current existing interest within the marketing discipline in relation to its contribution to the achievement of sustained competitive advantage (SCA). The study of the origin of SCA has given rise to the development of different theories. The RBV of the firm is among the most recognized theories in the field of Strategic Management, which has brought about its application to the field of marketing. The premises of this theory establish the origin of competitive advantage in the organizational resources. For this reason, marketing researchers have focused on: (1) the identification of the resources belonging to the domain of marketing—such as market orientation; (2) their practical effects on organizational results; and (3) their possible relationships and synergies with other valuable organizational resources. Within this context, the present research tries to satisfy a twofold objective: on the one hand, to theoretically discuss whether market orientation is capable of producing generative learning and, on the other hand, to practically analyze the relationship between organizational learning and market orientation. Thus, market orientation, according to the principles of the RBV is considered to be an organizational resource that combines the necessary properties to develop SCA: (1) it is valuable to avoid threatens and to seize opportunities (Hunt & Morgan, 1995), (2) it is rare, so that it allows the to obtain superior performance against competitors (Avlonitis & Gounaris, 1999, Jaworski & Kohli, 1993, Narver & Slater, 1990 and Pelham & Wilson, 1996), (3) it is difficult to imitate due to its intangible and complex nature (Hunt & Morgan, 1995) and, (4) it is a lasting resource due to its permanent focus on market needs and to the explicit recognition of the origin of competitive advantage on the creation and maintenance of a superior value for customers (Hunt & Morgan, 1995). However, if market orientation can only generate by itself adaptive organizational learning, unless it is accompanied by other organizational resources, it can then threaten the survival of the firm and the previous considerations with respect to its contribution to competitive advantage loose validity. Nevertheless, the theoretical arguments that deny the capacity of a true market orientation—that is, applied in its cultural and operative dimension—to produce generative learning can be rejected. Market-oriented firms can be also seen as learning oriented organizations as they intrinsically focus on a deeper understanding of their markets and on a permanent adaptation to the shifts in their customers' preferences. Thus, with a long-term orientation, market-oriented firms analyze any environmental force that may modulate their clients preferences in order to adequately provide the new sources of value. This behavior prevents the tyranny of served market, provides knowledge that allows the adjustment of the risks assumed and stimulates the predisposition to innovate anticipating the clients' needs and the competitors' initiatives. Additionally, the overwhelming evidences concerning the market orientation contribution to outperform competition prevent any criticism referred to the market-oriented firms' inability to controvert conventional wisdom or to avoid self-satisfaction. Therefore, market orientation is not only a valuable resource in itself but it also contributes to the accumulation of other organizational resources increasing their value for the organization (Dierickx & Cool, 1989). In this sense, practitioners who wish to incentive organizational learning to occur should consider the convenience of building a market orientation. Once this first objective is satisfied, a model is proposed that links learning orientation with market orientation and the organizational both economic and non-economic results. Thus, it is understood that the fact that a market-oriented organization can develop generative learning is not incompatible with the fact that a learning organization manages to be effectively oriented to market, that is, that it develops patterns of behavior and a system of values that allow it to offer greater value to the market in a sustained way. As Slater and Narver (1995, p. 71) indicate “learning organizations are guided by a shared vision that focuses the energies of organizational members on creating superior value for customers”. In this way, organizational learning and market orientation are considered mutually dependent realities but insisting on the fact that the role of market orientation in the development of learning is greater than what has been admitted so far. Accordingly, it is advocated that learning orientation can stimulate the market-oriented behavior (Day, 1994b and Sinkula et al., 1997) and ultimately the development of marketing resources. Overall, the paper defends that market orientation stimulates generative learning and that a learning orientation influences a market-oriented behavior, which involves a mutual dependence of organizational learning and market orientation as suggested by Bell et al. (2002, p. 79). The empirical model also aims to analyze the effects of learning orientation on the development of other valuable marketing capabilities such as the establishment of long-term relationships with the firm's strategic clients. This objective is aimed at the obtention of a better understanding of the repercussions of organizational learning on the marketing domain. Thus, learning orientation is considered as an incentive to the development of long-term relationships. Specifically, the organizational learning is deemed to favor the firms' knowledge of their clients and, therefore, to affect the level of trust and affective commitment placed on them. Finally, market orientation and learning orientation, as organizational resources, are depicted to favor the entrepreneurial results. The empirical findings obtained provide support for most of the relationships proposed and involve several managerial implications. Thus, it is confirmed that the firms devoted to learning, as learning orientation indicates, develop a greater level of operative market orientation, and therefore learning itself can be considered a high-level resource that contributes to the process of accumulation of other organizational resources like market orientation. Such a market orientation has in turn a positive repercussion on the firm's economic results. Thus, the findings also reaffirm the character of market orientation as a source of competitive advantage. Then, it becomes clearer how important it is for organizations to develop a culture committed to organizational learning, have a shared vision of objectives and priorities, and develop an organizational open-mindedness to improve their patterns of behavior oriented to the market, since learning orientation favors operative market orientation. However, the relationship between learning orientation and results is not produced directly, but rather indirectly through market orientation. Therefore, it is necessary to operatively translate knowledge so that this allows improving the competitive results. Accordingly, learning orientation or the desire to develop knowledge is not enough by itself to have a significant impact on company's performance. This finding allows a deeper understanding of how learning occurs. This evidence, however, contradicts the results of the researches carried out by Baker and Sinkula (1999) and Farrell (2000). In addition, the empirical evidence obtained suggests that learning orientation also stimulates the firms' trust and affective commitment to its strategic customers and, ultimately, the continuity of the existing relationships. This is a novel outcome that confirms a suggested potential effect of learning and that extends the scope of its consequences within the marketing domain. Given the increasing importance of customer retention in more and more competitive industrial markets this finding has important implications for practitioners. Learning orientation will not only contribute to the business performance stimulating market-oriented behavior but will also allow the obtaining of non-economic results such as the customer linking capability.