تاثیر فرهنگ سازمانی بر ادراک و تجارب آزار و اذیت جنسی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3976||2000||18 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6720 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 57, Issue 2, October 2000, Pages 188–205
In sexual harassment research, the importance of organizational variables has become increasingly clear. Utilizing the results of a survey conducted at a telecommunications company in 1997 (N = 458), this study elaborates on the impact of organizational culture on the incidence of unwanted sexual behavior in the workplace. Drawing on organizational and gender theory, we proposed that three organizational variables would be related to the levels of reported experiences of unwanted sexual behavior. First, the social climate in the organization is important: respondents who are positive about the social climate in their workplace have reported experiencing fewer unwanted sexual behaviors than respondents who perceive their organizations as less socially oriented. Second, a relationship was found between gender-specific aspects of the organizational climate and the extent of unwanted sexual behavior: respondents who think that their department has a positive attitude toward the equal treatment of women and men at work have themselves reported less frequently experiencing unwanted sexual behavior. Furthermore, it appears that the respondents who judge the attitude of management toward the combination of work and family to be positive have reported experiencing fewer incidences of unwanted sexual behavior within the department.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Table 2 shows the means, standard deviations, and correlation’s for all majorvariables.Several organizational variables were associated with the perceived incidenceof sexual harassment. This relationship was found for the respondents whoreported experiencing unwanted sexual behavior personally as well as for therespondents who observed unwanted sexual behavior within their department.Organizational culture. We distinguished two organizational features: the social climate of the organization and the level of bureaucratic procedures. Theassumption underlying the question concerning the social climate of an organi-zation was that the more an organization shows a concern for its employees, theless we would expect sexual harassment to occur (Hypothesis 1). This is due tothe idea that communications would thus be better and therefore unsolicitedbehavior would occur less often. The results concerning this supposed relationshipbetween organizational culture and unwanted sexual behavior are the samefor both groups, the respondents who observed this behavior within their departmentand the respondents who reported experiencing unwanted sexual behaviorpersonally. The results show that respondents who are more positive about thesocial climate in their department observe less unwanted sexual behavior thanemployees who value the social climate as less socially oriented (F1,179 520,9; p , .01). For the employees without experiences of unwanted sexual behavior, the mean for social climate was 3,6 and for the group with experiencesthe mean was 3,0. The same association was found for the respondents who havereported experiencing unwanted sexual behavior personally (F1,179 5 7,3;p , .01). The mean for the group without experiences of sexual harassment was3,5 and for the group employees with experiences 3,1. No significant relationshipwas found between bureaucratic procedures and the perception of unwantedsexual behavior (Hypothesis 2).Gender-specific organizational culture. The primary purpose of this part of ourstudy was to explore the relationship between explicit gender aspects of theorganizational culture and the extent of sexual harassment. As far as the equaltreatment of women and men within the company is concerned we expected thatemployees would observe and report experiencing fewer unwanted sexual behaviors in organizations that create equal opportunities for women and men(Hypothesis 3). It turns out that the respondents who think that their departmenthas a positive attitude toward the equal treatment of women and men at workhave themselves less frequently experienced sexual harassment (F1,179 5 4,6;p , .05). The respondents with no experiences with unwanted sexual behaviorhave a mean of 1.5 on this subscale, whereas the group with experiences has amean of 1.8. The same relationship is true for observed unwanted sexual behavior within the department (F1,179 5 5.0; p , .05). The secondgender-specific feature of organizational culture also relates significantly to theperceived extent of unwanted sexual behavior (Hypothesis 4). Respondents whojudge the attitude of management toward the combination of work and familypositively perceive fewer unwanted sexual advances within their department(F1,179 5 8,7; p , .1). The mean score on this subscale for the respondents without experiences with unwanted sexual behavior was 2,5 and for the employeeswith experiences 3,0.Sex and incidence of unwanted sexual behavior. We distinguish between the incidence of unwanted sexual behavior observed by the respondents within theirdepartment and personally experienced unwanted sexual conduct. Of all therespondents who returned a completed questionnaire, 54% have observed one ormore forms of sexual harassment within their department (Table 3). In general,women observe more sexual harassment within the department than men do:women 63% and men 50% (Hypothesis 5).Second, we examined unwanted sexual behavior that the employees (male andfemale) have reported experiencing personally. Of all respondents 64% haveexperienced sexual harassment directed toward them personally, at least once(Table 4). Women reported experiencing this behavior slightly more than men:66 and 62% (Hypothesis 5).