آیا رفتار سازمانی قصد صادرات شرکت ها را می تواند توضیح دهد ؟ اثرات فرهنگ سازمانی و نوع مالکیت
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3977||2001||19 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Business Review, Volume 10, Issue 1, February 2001, Pages 71–89
The research objective of this paper is to examine the export intention of firms from the standpoint of organizational behavior. A model is designed to study the effects of two organizational behavior dimensions, namely organizational culture and ownership type, on the export intention of American firms. The findings indicate that adaptable cultures increase and internally oriented cultures decrease the likelihood of a firm's intention to export. Data analysis further indicates a strong association between ownership type and the export intention of firms. Externally controlled firms have the highest level of export intention followed by manager-controlled and owner-controlled firms. Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed in the paper.
The investigation of major variables that are critical to firms' export decision has been the main research endeavor over the past two decades (Aaby & Slater, 1989; Katsikeas & Piercy, 1993; Rynning & Andersen, 1994). Some of the studies in the export marketing literature attempted to capture the major differences between exporting and non-exporting firms with respect to attitudes, perceptions, and resource-based capabilities (e.g. Cavusgil, Bilkey & Tesar, 1979; Cavusgil & Naor, 1987; Wiedersheim-Paul, Olson & Welch, 1978). More recently, studies have concentrated mainly on the variables that improve the export performance of firms (Zou & Stan, 1998). Interestingly, policy makers focused their attention more on the problems of exporting firms and advocated for their greater involvement with foreign trade (Morgan & Katsikeas, 1997). Although empirical inquiry into the area of export performance is flourishing, the main research question as to what motivates firms to initiate their export activities still remains unanswered. In the US, for example, only 6% of manufactures and 5% of intermediary firms engage in exporting activities (US Department of Commerce, 1997). There still remains a clear research need to underlie the reasons behind the reluctance of firms to export. The present paper offers an alternative research agenda to supplement previous research by exploring the possible impacts of organizational culture and ownership type on firms' export intention. Although the effects of organizational culture and ownership type on firms' strategic goals and orientation are well established, the framework in the context of export decisions has not been developed despite a possible link. This link may arise due to organizational processes and their effectiveness on achieving organizational goals (Baron, 1986; Frederiksen, 1982). This exploratory research attempts to determine whether the export intention of firms (as one of the organizational processes) can be explained by the nature of their organizational behavior measured by organizational culture and ownership structure. Such study makes two significant contributions; (1) at the firm level, organizations can identify the extent to which their organizational culture and the strategic orientation of owners is suitable for international expansion, and (2) at the policy level, public institutions can allocate their funding more effectively by determining the specific needs of non-exporting firms and support the most appropriate export promotion programs.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Table 4 exhibits the results of the logistic regression parameters of the model. The overall fit of the model was significant at χ2=30.92 and p=0.0001. Overall, the full model classified 83.33% of the cases correctlyThe proposed associations between the independent and dependent variables were assessed with the sign of the coefficients. A positive coefficient indicated an increase and a negative coefficient indicated a decrease in the probability of export intention. The significance of relationships was assessed with the univariate Wald test statistics. The critical value of 2 was used to indicate any significant relationship (Hosmer & Lemeshow, 1989) between the predictor and criterion variables.1 Hypothesis 1 predicted a positive association between market culture and export intention. Logistic regression results yield no support for the hypothesis (β=0.3526 and W=1.3152). Although such organizational culture is desirable for international expansion, firms may adhere to market dynamism in their domestic operations. Therefore, a strong position in their domestic market may limit firms' need and desire to expand overseas. Results indicate that adhocracy culture is positively associated with the firm's export intention (β=0.4708 and W=3.1770) yielding support for hypothesis 2. This group of non-exporting firms may have the greatest potential to become successful exporters due to their external orientation. Previous research indicates that adaptability and external orientation may play a key role in driving firms to international markets (McKee, Varadarajan & Pride, 1989; Tesar & Moini, 1998). No support was found for hypothesis 3 which predicted a negative association between hierarchy culture and export intention (β=−0.200 and W=0.0223). A possible explanation for this finding may be offered from the industry studies that indicate that firms that operate in stable industries can compete effectively by adhering to orders, uniformity, and internal rules (Gordon, 1991; McKee et al., 1989). There is a clear need for future research to explore the effects of industry variables on organizational culture. Regarding hypothesis 4, the data suggest a strong negative association between export intention and clan culture (β=−0.4938 and W=3.6993). Therefore, H4 was supported. It appears that when firms exercise internal orientation and endeavor to maximize organizational cohesiveness and employee satisfaction, their potential to become regular exporters lessens. As Tesar and Moini (1998) suggest, such orientation may prevent firms from exporting activities for a long period of time.H5a stated that export intention was associated with the ownership structure of firms. Logit regression results indicate that the relationship is significant (β=0.1534 and W=2.2649), supporting H5a. A separate ANOVA test indicated that export intention was highest in externally controlled firms (mean=0.5833) followed by manager-controlled firms (mean=0.4705) and owner-controlled firms (mean=0.3667).