فرهنگ سازمانی، جهت گیری بازار، نوآوری و عملکرد شرکت : یک سفر تحقیقاتی بین المللی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|4010||2004||20 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9670 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Research in Marketing, Volume 21, Issue 1, March 2004, Pages 3–22
In this paper, we chronicle a research program spanning a decade and a dozen countries. The studies were framed in an extended model of competing values of organizational culture, and focused on how organizational culture, market orientation, and innovativeness affect the performance of firms competing in business-to-business markets. The design was developed and first tested in Japan. It was used throughout the research program, with the exception of a simplification of the sampling unit. We summarize substantive conclusions, including discussion of empirical similarities and differences in different cultures, in rich and poor countries, in the Orient and the Occident, in emerging economies, and in economies in transition towards a more market-driven form. As a general pattern, we find significant differences across countries in the means of all of the variables under study, and these differences generally reflect characteristics of national cultures. However, we find that slopes relating these variables to firm performance do not differ systematically over countries. We also examine buyer–seller relationships in the framework of an international “natural experiment” based on aspects of national culture. A brief research agenda is included.
Deshpandé and Webster (1989) proposed a research agenda for combining the study of several facets of organizational culture with the study of marketing management. In the first half of the 1990s, as discussed later, marketing also benefited from considerable progress in the measurement of market orientation and on relating these measures to firm performance. In 1993, a study of the effect of organizational cultures, market orientation (measured with a new scale), and innovativeness on the performance of Japanese firms was published (Deshpandé, Farley, & Webster, 1993). The questionnaire was developed and administered in Japanese. As a general matter, hypotheses (discussed later) concerning the relationship of performance to elements of the modified competing values model (also described later) were supported both quantitatively and qualitatively. In the latter half of the same decade, the field of management in general (Management Science, 1994) and the field of marketing in particular (Marketing Science, 1995) turned attention to knowledge generalization—that is, to how existing knowledge can be used to predict what will happen in new, partially analogous product/market situations (Aharoni & Burton, 1994). The Marketing Science Institute (MSI) recognized the need for integration of organizational culture, market orientation, and innovation as linked to firm performance by designating interdisciplinary research leading to a better understanding of customer-oriented organizations as a highest research priority (Marketing Science Institute, 1994). Since this was also a period of intense interest in the rapid progress of globalization, there was particular interest in developing global generalizations of marketing knowledge (Winer, 1998). Work expanded throughout the 1990s along the lines of testing a series of geographic generalizations of the research methodology and of substantive results developed in Japan. In the design of these extensions, the decision was made to maintain the same research methodology, retaining the advantages of direct comparability of measures, but at the same time losing the ability to really capitalize on the ongoing work in fields from which the research design was derived. Table 1 lists 9 published or forthcoming articles, which involved 10 countries (including pre-handover Hong Kong) and 17 cities. (To avoid highly repetitive citations in this paper, these articles and more recent working papers by the authors will be cited by the last initials and the year of publication—e.g. Deshpandé & Farley, 2002c and Deshpandé et al., 1993; other citations will be spelled out.) The articles are linked together by an effort to generalize conclusions, to the degree possible, quantitatively and non-contingently. The choice of countries and cities was largely driven by our research interests at the time, combined with some concerns with costs and the availability of skilled research suppliers.The first step in the sequence was a test of generalizability in four other industrial countries (Deshpandé, Farley, & Webster, 2000), a near replication which is discussed in detail later in this paper to illustrate both the research methodology and the substantive conclusions. Later studies (chronological in completion but not necessarily in publication) focused on different issues. Second was a test, which turned out to be successful, as to whether the methodology generalized to the industrializing world—in this case India (Deshpandé & Farley, 1999a). After a major simplification of the methodologies, two research streams followed. One stream involved Asian market economies (Hong Kong, India, and Thailand; Deshpandé & Farley, 2001) and the other focused on economies in transition from centralized economic planning to more market-driven structures (Vietnam, Deshpandé & Farley, 1999b, and China, Deshpandé & Farley, 2000). Finally, a comparison of six different cities was executed in culturally diverse China (Deshpandé & Farley, 2002a). Later, two studies reanalyzed some of the data to examine the interplay of national cultures and buyer–seller relationships (Deshpandé & Farley, 2002a; SDF, 2000).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
A framework built on an expanded theory of competing values was used to examine the impact of organizational culture, market orientation, organizational climate, and innovativeness on firm performance. These individual elements were developed more or less independently in different fields of research and at different times. The original design of the overall framework was developed in the early 1990s and used without major change for over a decade to provide comparability; during this period, there was significant research development in each of the four literatures which contributed research to the expanded competing values model. The importance of the results is that improvement of a given size in a particular explanatory variable should be related to approximately the same improvement in performance in many countries. Open organizational cultures (competitive and entrepreneurial), stronger market orientation, and innovativeness all had a pattern of positive effects on performance as expected. Based on the insignificance of country effects in the slopes of regressions, we find similar substantive results in 10 countries, both industrial and industrializing, both Western and Asian, and in both market economies and economies in transition from central planning. Similar results hold qualitatively within a diverse set of Chinese cities. Further, the basic approach can be extended to analyses of such matters as the connection of relationship marketing with cultural differences. 5.1. Substantive generalizations Some specific generalizations deal with both measures and markets: • Market orientation and innovativeness have a pattern of consistently positive impact on performance. Innovativeness appears to be more important in the industrial world, and market orientation more important in the industrializing world, where the notion of marketing is at an earlier stage of development. • As a general matter, relatively open, externally oriented organizational cultures related to better performance, while relatively closed, internally oriented organizational cultures related to poorer performance. • In the so-called “transition economies” which are moving towards more market-driven economies, the results appear to apply to only a minority of firms—the upper third or upper quarter in terms of performance. • Industry type, defined in rather broad categories (e.g. consumer non-durables), has no effect on these conclusions. 5.2. Methodological generalizations The following generalizations have to do mainly with measurement: • Market orientation, organizational climate, and performance were reliably measurable in all the situations studied. Organizational climate had limited impact on performance; it is possible that this measure is more specific to national culture than the others (Newman & Nollan, 1996). • More specific issues can be examined by bringing new theories to bear on analysis of the same information. This was illustrated in the discussion of cultural patterns in buyer–seller relationships under social identity theory in Section 4.5. • Work is needed on more universally reliable measures of organizational culture and innovativeness. The innovativeness scale is highly dependent on items related to the product life cycle, and these do not seem to work as well in the industrializing world. Similarly, the four-item organizational climate scales appear too limited in the industrializing world. • In terms of methodology, the exact role of invariance of individual country covariance matrices is unclear, as are the sensitivities of invariance tests to sample sizes, scale reliability, collinearity of measures, or sensitivity of the tests to various types of alternatives. Probably more important is developing a better understanding of the effect on both reliability and invariance of relatively high levels of observation-idiosyncratic variability in the dependent and independent variables, which apparently occur in cross-sectional studies of firm performance. Experiments, perhaps in a simulation framework, might be as useful in this situation as they were in the early history of econometrics in assessing the actual effect of specification error on various approaches to parameter estimation. Invariance will probably continue to be a nearly ubiquitous problem for cross-national researchers. Steenkamp et al. (1999) suggest that using alternative tests is useful, but that estimation can produce meaningful results in absence of invariance. (Ryan, Chan, Ployhart, & Slade, 1999), in a rather balanced discussion of the subject, argue that invariance should at least be considered, but that some methods appear to be too stringent. They also point out that a model that predicts results well in each country (that is, that has a consistent “signal” in terms of parameter estimates and model fit) may help override some apparent weaknesses in data. 5.3. What next? The results, while consistent with theory and consistent over countries, probably raise more questions than provide definitive answers. Some questions deal with limitations on generalization: • These studies, while they use representative samples of manufacturing and service firms, deal only with direct business-to-business relationships. Studies of patterns of perceptions of market orientation through the layers of complex distribution systems, for example, in the business-to-consumer context, would broaden the scope of generalization. • The growing interest in causal models during the period of the research program suggests returning to the analysis in this context. (Throughout this research program, the scales were maintained in the form in which they were developed—that is, with items weighted equally.) As a next step, confirmatory factor analysis should be explored as a means to weight the elements of the various scales, perhaps leading to the addition of a measurement model to future studies of this type. • The quadrad design, which required limiting interviewing to geographically proximate customers, left open the question of whether geographic distance between customer and supplier is systematically related to perceived levels of market orientation. • Most of the results deal with a single, major city in each country. The results on the existence of within-country city patterns are similar rather than different. • All individual studies are cross-sectional. Longitudinal studies would be useful to study changes over time in perceptions of managers of both producing and buying firms. A useful design might include periodic re-interviews on a subset of a sample in panel form, with the rest of each sample being used in fresh samples to help calibrate any effects of re-measurement (Deshpandé & Farley, 2002c). • The choice of countries was driven more by chance than by design. In particular, a balanced approach to characteristics of the sample countries—culture, demographics, major institutional factors, etc.—could help sharpen results. • In all likelihood, industry (which did not effect our results) probably does have a systematic effect at some level of greater disaggregation. Many students of firm performance find that industry characteristics systematically matter in study of performance Bain, 1951, Hansen & Wernerfelt, 1989 and Scherer & Ross, 1990, hence probably in organizational elements also related to performance, such as market orientation. Some experiments with different levels of aggregation might be useful. Some open questions deal with methodological matters: • As mentioned earlier, some basic work is needed on the scales measuring organizational culture and innovativeness. • Experiments with measures of performance other than self-reports would be most useful, although self-reports have proven reliable in many settings. • Replication and re-measurement should be considered to track stability of results over time and to assess systematic changes related to major environmental changes—the Southeast Asian Crisis, for example. 5.4. Towards a broader perspective on determinants of firm performance While the results do seem robust, our research program is based on three classes of essentially organizational variables. This helps remedy the relative historical void of organizational measurements (at least relative to environmental and strategic measures) in studies of performance. However, it is important that these results now be fit into a broader context in terms of a wider range of determinants of firm performance. The research required to develop a broad understanding of superior firm performance is daunting. We know a great deal about the bivariate effect on firm performance of a long list of environmental and strategic factors, but we know relatively little about how these elements combine within categories and even less about how environmental, strategic, and organizational combine across categories in a comprehensive model of firm performance.