تحول کسب و کار و فرهنگ سازمانی :: نقش شایستگی، IS و TQM
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|4013||2004||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : European Management Journal, Volume 22, Issue 6, December 2004, Pages 624–636
The broad aim of this paper is to examine the contribution which anthropology can make in the study of organizational culture and more specifically, in examining the relationship between culture and business transformation. In the 1970s, Mary Douglas, the world renowned British anthropologist, put forward the cultural theory of grid and group (G/G) which identified four distinct cultural typologies to define the position of an individual within a society. This model, which was developed originally to make a study of the social anthropology of religion among primitive African tribes, has more recently been used variously to describe many aspects of culture; however much less effort has been put into relating it to business organizations and in particular examining the role of organizational culture in business transformation. This is surprising given that cultural concepts have their roots in social anthropology. Since business transformation is primarily about fundamental changes in organizational culture, the purpose of this article is to argue that Douglas’s theory provides an effective framework for analyzing and understanding the cultural changes which are necessary for successful organizational transformation. This is demonstrated by applying it to a major case study of an engineering/aerospace company in the UK. The cultural changes have been brought about through a range of strategies such as the development of managerial and organizational competencies, information systems, and quality management practices. It is a significant case study in that the organization has undergone radical transformation and secondly the transformation has been highly successful. An attempt is also made to compare the G/G model with other models including an examination of the wider applications of the model in the practice of management. The limitations and pitfalls of applying a cultural typology approach to organizational analysis are also briefly considered.
Much has been published in the literature about organizational culture (Peters and Waterman, 1982; Hofstede, 1991), its centrality to business change and the importance of enablers such as leadership, learning organizations and core competencies in the evolution of the corporate culture. However, much less effort has been expended in studying the usefulness of cultural theories developed by anthropologists in analyzing and understanding organizational culture. This is surprising given that culture has its roots in Social Anthropology. One of the reasons could be the belief that the societies which anthropologists study are quite distinct from those of the corporate organizations of today. The reality, however, is that in most countries organizations are often structured along similar lines to that of the society. Against this background, the purpose of this paper is to argue that the cultural theory which was developed originally, by the famous British anthropologist Mary Douglas to study the social anthropology of religion in primitive African tribes, can shed significant light on the role of culture in transforming businesses in a world characterized by increased competition, globalization of markets and competitors and the enabling technologies which have permitted these dynamics to occur. The paper is organized into four parts. The first part outlines the relationship between culture and business transformation and the second part describes the methodology and, in particular, the key components of the cultural theory. The third part discusses the business transformation which has occurred in a major aerospace company in the UK and how Douglas’s theory can be used to describe the significant cultural changes that had taken place. The final part makes a comparison of the G/G model with other models and the wider contribution which the model can make in the practice of management including its limitations.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Business transformation is a long and complex process for most organizations. Key to the success of business transformation is the development of the culture of the organization. The effectiveness of the cultural theory in describing and interpreting business transformation has been demonstrated through a case study. Since Mary Douglas’s model was aimed more at the individual and his role in society, it is a suitable framework to analyze and account for cultural pluralism in organizations; The case study has shown that the best mix of cultural typologies for an organization is market-led (quadrant A) and team-based (quadrant B) while retaining some aspects of hierarchical typology to co-ordinate the activities of the organization as a whole. Through the example case study it is shown that Douglas’s framework is a useful model for studying either the transformation of the culture of the organization or indeed could be utilized as part of the planning and development process which takes place during the business transformation process. As described above, the G/G model is also quite useful in studying other aspects of the practice of management.