سوابق و پیامدهای قراردادهای روانشناختی : آیا فرهنگ سازمانی واقعا مهم است ؟
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|4028||2009||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 62, Issue 8, August 2009, Pages 818–825
Exploring the role of psychological contracts, this study proposes that different organizational cultures are associated with relational psychological contracts compared to transactional contracts while both types of contracts serve as mediators. While clan cultures positively impact relational contracts and are negatively associated with transactional contracts, hierarchical cultures have the reverse effect. In addition, psychological contract types mediate the two culture types' relationship to both organizational commitment and employee yearly earnings. In sum, clan cultures relate to more positive organizational outcomes than hierarchical cultures, a finding which as implications for future research and practice.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
4.1. Research Implications This study examined the role of psychological contracts as a mediator of the organizational culture to affective commitment and employee yearly earnings relationship. The results were consistent with our predictions. In particular, clan cultures positively impacted relational contracts and negatively impacted transactional contracts. Hierarchical cultures had the reverse effect. Psychological contract types (relational and transactional) mediated the relationship between organizational culture and both organizational commitment and employee yearly earnings. These findings support the theory that organizations have an important role in creating and influencing employee perceptions of the psychological contract. In fact, organizational culture plays a pivotal role in the determination of psychological contract type. Additionally transactional psychological contracts were negatively related to affective commitment and employee yearly earnings while relational psychological contracts were positively related to affective commitment and unrelated to employee yearly earnings. These findings support previous research regarding psychological contracts and affective commitment as well as introducing another possible consequence, employee yearly earnings. Our results support Guest's (1998) proposed model of psychological contracts. We have not only included organizational culture as a potential antecedent in the development of psychological contracts, but we have also examined these contracts within the context of both social exchange theory and transaction cost analysis. In addition, we have extended Maguire's (2002) research that suggests organizational culture plays a critical role in the development of relational psychological contract. Specifically, our findings reveal that a clan culture is essential for the creation of relational contracts while a hierarchy culture contributes to the creation of transactional contracts. Even more importantly, we have provided support for a comprehensive picture of the psychological contract model. Future research is still necessary for a complete framework to be determined. For example, is it possible that the other two cultural types included in the Competing Values Framework impact the creation of psychological contracts? In addition, Guest's (1998) model proposed that along with organizational culture, human resource practices also play an important role in psychological contract development. Further research is needed to test this relationship. We found that transactional psychological contracts were negatively related to employee yearly earnings consistent with our predictions. Further research is necessary to examine this relationship. Continued examination is needed to develop a better understanding of the relationship between psychological contracts and yearly earnings. In addition, future research should investigate under what conditions transactional contracts lead to more favorable outcome given the widespread usage of them. 4.2. Managerial implications Research has suggested that when violations of psychological contracts are perceived by employees the results can have negative effects on the organization. As such, psychological contracts are a critical aspect of organizational behavior. Both social exchange theory and transaction cost analysis provide a useful framework for managers to understand psychological contract development. For example, while psychological contracts are determined by both the organization and the employee, it is the organization that can influence the type of contract created. By providing managers with an understanding of how such contracts are created and sustained they will be better equipped to ensure that the contracts are not violated. In conclusion, both organizational culture and psychological contracts can be leveraged by managers in order to avoid the detrimental consequences of psychological contract violations. While relational contracts result in increased affective commitment, transactional contracts can actually decrease commitment and yearly earnings. These negative results can then lead to lower performance, increased absences, etc. As such, it is imperative that organizations understand these relationships and how to best manage them to everyone's benefit.