پژوهشی در رابطه با استفاده از مدیریت پروژه در تغییر فرهنگِ سازمانی در نهادهای دولتی اجرایی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|4063||2012||6 صفحه PDF||9 صفحه WORD|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Procedia Economics and Finance, Volume 3, 2012, Pages 617–622
2.اهدافِ این مقاله
شکل 1. اجرای پروژه چهار سال اخیر
شکل 2. عناصر عملکرد سازمان
شکل 3. آشنایی با فرهنگ سازمانی
شکل 4. حالت فنی سازمان
Modern theoreticians emphasize that management is required in all modern organizations, economic or not, possibly being even more necessary in organizations that have no economic character, such the state institutions as they are not governed by the principle of profit and loss. Hence, research in the field of project management within the institutions of public administration is a potentially fruitful one, as it can emphasize strengths and weaknesses in the field, and, in the long run, contributes to raising the level of the countries or development regions involved. In my present study, there is a comparative analysis of organizational culture state of art and changes in public institutions, as a result of the implementation of projects within national and international programs. My methodology includes surveys conducted at the headquarters of public administration institutions in Targu Mures, interviews with a few important public clerks, and library study and discussions with my PhD coordinator in this field. Results up to this moment – from the surveyed locations in Romania, at least - give the picture of an organizational culture that is in between tradition and modernity. As an outcome of project implementation, it is expected that the Romanian public administration will be to a larger degree transparent and in the service of the citizen, more involved in several neuralgic areas of public life, and also have better wages for its employees, thus motivating them.
Peter Drucker highlighted that " management is required in all modern organizations,regardless ofwhether or not economic. In fact I realized that it is more necessary in organizations that have no economiccharacter, such as those that do not have a financial profile (the so-called social sector or state institutions).They need management as they are not subject to the discipline imposed by profit and loss" Drucker, 1996.Project management is much discussed today Lock, 1996, as well as research on organizational culturechange in different institutions Preda, 2006 as it can greatly improve the role of human resources by changingthe organizational culture of an institution, Androniceanu, 2008. The notion of organizational culture defines asystem of values, assumptions, beliefs and norms shared by members of an organization (company,government agency, non-profit organization, museum, etc...) which unite the organization. Peters andWaterman consider organizational culture as "a coherent and overarching system of shared values, transmittedthrough symbolic means such as stories, myths, legends, slogans, anecdotes, stories" Hofstede, 1991. Most experts acknowledge that the components of organizational culture do not all have the same level ofvisualization and consistence Wanna, 2007. However, most researchers consider the following components oforganizational culture: symbols, values, rules of conduct, and rituals and ceremonies.The concept of symbol is used to characterize organizational phenomena and their manifestations atdifferent levels. Often symbols are used in dealing with other cultures to express some similarities ordifferences. A culture can be seen as a system of symbols that are designed to maintain order and make itfunctional. Another important element is the representation function of symbols, which reveals that theyrepresent something different or something more than the symbol itself, whether it is a material component ornot. A third element refers to the assumption that symbols or the symbolic reality have their own logic. Thislogic can be found in generating certain attitudes and behaviours. Symbols can wear a variety of forms. Theycan be divided, for example, in: verbal symbols, material symbols, and several others.Values are preferences held by groups, core beliefs and norms that define the forms of action and thinking.More specifically, they form the philosophy of the organization and determine its charter of conduct expressedby internal regulations, job descriptions, as well as systems of rewards and sanctions adopted. Valuesestablished prohibitions, taboos, the margins of freedom that should not be violated.Norms of behaviour anticipate the attitudes expected to be adopted by employees within and outside theorganization, and rewards or sanctions triggered by compliance or violation of them, respectively,Les cultures organisationnelles du travail, http://savoir.fr/les-cultures-organisationnelles-du-travail.A ritual is a set of planned actions with emotional content, combining different ways of expression of organizational culture. They often have both a practical purpose as well as a symbolic one. Examples of rituals within an organization include hiring a new person, exclusion, that is dismissal of anemployee working in a group, retirement ceremonies, and integration rituals in achieving goals and providingsignificant symbols (medals, certificates, badges and so on). The ceremony is a collective event, in a formal andsolemn manner, which often expresses an awareness of tradition and history of the company. The ceremoniesare celebrations of cultural values and basic assumptions of the organization, and are events that reflect andhonour the organizational culture, and people remember them over time. One of the important functions oforganizational culture is to maintain a certain social order within the organization by providing a collectivemental model that makes each employee aware of the given roles and positions. One can appreciate that thisprocess takes place in two dimensions, through institutionalization of the beliefs and values of the company instories and myths, and through the transmission and enrichment of future generations within their organization,Hofstede, 1991.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The relatively small number of really professional project managersalso contributes to this low absorption. Only 50% of employees believe that their organization has policies andprocedures by which their institutions function, this small percentage resulting in slowdown; 60% of clerks consider searching the internet as the main way to identify new sources of funding, which appears to be apositive feature as finding partners online saves resources.Most employees (60%) believe that to be successful in attracting funds knowledge is necessary first. It is a positive and real feature, but, as we have seen they must further take part in a considerable amount oforganizational culture and project management training sessions to be really able for a positive organizationalchange in the future. Providing financial incentives is considered by far a necessary element for the emergenceof good practices in the organization by 60% of the employees. It seems we should not minimize theimportance of financial motivation, especially for public administration clerks that are currently underpaid andthus under-motivated. Most employees (40%) have seminars on community projects / national legislation, 30% in their specific area and 30% in other areas. These percentages are good, despite the relatively weak average -compared to other communist countries like Hungary, Slovenia, Czech Republic, and Poland - concerningthese issues. Excessive bureaucracy is considered to be the greatest threat to the institution by 70% ofemployees, followed by changing legislation in the field (20% of respondents). Excessive bureaucracyincreases workload at the expense of efficiency. Efficiency of pretty much all state institutions in Romaniasuffers to some extent from legislative instability. 90% of employees believe that anyone can address questions to anyone in the organization. This is a really democratic feature which stands at the grounds for any futuredevelopment in the field of project management. 80% of clerks believe that authority is centralized, only 20%believing that there is a decisional autonomy at different levels. This could be a serious deficiency ofinstitutions in Romania. The most common Western European model is that the more autonomous aninstitution is, the more effective it is, although this can depend on the characteristics of the society concerningpower distance. Occasionally, we can have countries that are doing well in spite of the relatively high power distance index, but these usually do not follow a European model of development. The Romanian society is yetto decide which model it suits it better. Most people (60%) remain in the institution "in need of a job" and"because they have no alternative." On the one hand, it seems a pessimistic perspective. On the other hand, itmay suggest the image of a quasi-inert society, with people who do not dare take too much initiative.In spite of all its problems, Romanian public management has definitely made important progresses in thefield of project management, Marian, 2011, the fruits of which are especially visible in the Bucharest and Western Development Region. There are important projects implemented in this field in the 7 CentreDevelopment Region also, even if at a smaller extent, and we are expecting even more projects in the nearfuture.