هم افزایی از طریق ارتباط: چه کسی از لینک کردن میکرو امور مالی و کسب و کار و توسعه خدمات سود می برد؟
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|4133||2007||18 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||10761 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : World Development, Volume 35, Issue 8, August 2007, Pages 1341–1358
Access to both financial and business development services (BDS) can aid the growth of micro and small enterprises. Early efforts to combine or “link” these two types of services proved unsuccessful, however. BDS was supply driven, of poor quality, and often confined to management training. A renewed interest in linking services is driven both by a concern that “credit is not enough” to generate bottom-up poverty reduction and by a new approach to BDS. Business services must be demand driven, managed in a sustainable manner, and diversified beyond management training. For success, linkages must provide benefits to the three key actors involved: enterprises, BDS providers, and micro-finance institutions. Thirty linked programs are analyzed using a six-part typology.
In developing countries, micro and small enterprises (MSEs) employ a significant portion of the total labor force. Support for the development of these informal and formal businesses can lead to higher profits, wages, and employment levels which, in turn, can contribute to a bottom-up transition out of poverty for entrepreneurs and workers. One way of strengthening MSEs is to improve their access to vital enterprise support services. These services can be divided into two basic categories: (1) financial services, notably micro-credit and (2) business development services or BDS. The latter comprises a broad range of non-financial services that boost competitiveness through higher productivity, better product design, improved service delivery, and/or enhanced market access. The main categories of BDS are management training, vocational skills training, marketing assistance (for inputs and output), technology access, technical assistance, productivity and product design, accounting and legal services, and access to various sorts of information (about standards, regulations, ideas in the enterprise field) (see Table 1). that BDS increases credit repayment rates, such services can help enterprises gain access to formal credit and can help to move credit clients up to larger loan sizes. In short, properly structured linkages can benefit the three main players involved: MSEs, micro-finance institutions, and BDS providers. This paper is divided into five sections: Following this first section, the paper reviews the changing trends among practitioners and donors regarding support to MSEs. It suggests that there has been a movement from poorly designed linkages, to a credit-only approach and then, more recently, to an effort to design linkages that are better structured and more sustainable. Section 3 addresses conceptual issues and presents a six-part typology of linkages based on whether they are voluntary or compulsory and whether services are delivered by the same or different departments within an organization or by entirely separate institutions. Section 4 reviews the empirical literature regarding the costs and benefits of linkage for each of the three actors; MFIs, BDS providers, MSEs. Section 5 draws lessons, provides recommendations, and highlights issues for further research. Along with a review of the published literature, the paper also relies on the grey literature of unpublished project documents and progress reports. In addition, discussions were held with, and comments solicited from, a range of key informants working for micro-finance institutions, BDS providers, international organizations, and bilateral donors. The insights received focused on field experiences.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This review—which included 30 linkage programs—examined only a fraction of existing activities. The research shows that little has been done to conceptualize the linkages and develop good practice models. While the number of impact studies available is small, there is evidence that combined delivery does not only result in significantly higher income for the clients but that it may also be possible to cover the cost of the BDS and credit from client fees. This suggests that the financial sustainability of linked approaches may not be as difficult to achieve as has often been assumed. Indeed, there are important synergies that can arise from linking services. Central to the issue of effectiveness and sustainability is the question of how the linkage is executed. This involves two levels of analysis. The first is six-part typology combining voluntary or compulsory with unified, parallel or partner. The second issue is how the chosen linkage is administered. (a). What type of linkage? As a general rule, clients should have a choice in their services. They can best assess their needs, in line with their capacity to pay, planned activities, abilities and sub-sector. In short, choice allows services to respond to the heterogeneity of enterprise needs. Even for a client who wants two or more services, a voluntary approach allows for the choice of separate services at the time appropriate. In making choices and paying for services, MSEs signal to providers which services are relevant and useful. Thus, the three voluntary linkages in Table 2 are preferred over the three compulsory ones. Compulsory linkages can result in unnecessary costs for clients who desire only one of the services. In addition, such linkages result in the loss by the service provider of important information concerning the quality of, and the demand for, the service.15 An exception may be made for first-time or inexperienced borrowers; there may be some intrinsic value in combining finance with initial low-intensity training, advice, or other services. Such a package would ensure that clients have a basic understanding of the use of credit and their plans as entrepreneurs. The successful cases of these compulsory service packages have incorporated BDS in credit repayment sessions to keep costs low for providers and clients. Many of the problems with joint provision have arisen in regard to the unified options. These options are not inherently flawed but they do tend to generate problems if credit officers are given the added task of BDS provision for which they have neither the time nor the expertise. In addition, it is difficult for MFIs to properly cost the BDS services that they decide to add. Thus, existing MFIs seeking to add BDS are best advised to avoid a unified approach. Small MFIs should avoid adding BDS themselves and opt for some type of partner arrangement. Larger organizations that are adding BDS are better placed to add specialized staff. Whether to adopt a parallel or partner format will be determined by the existing environment of providers. An MFI does not need to add BDS if there are existing business service providers to which credit clients can be directed. In the absence of BDS providers in the market, the MFI may have no option but to set up its own (parallel) department. However, if a credit provider wishes to expand its activities (and generate more profit) it may decide to add BDS using a parallel approach. In this case, it is doing so for commercial reasons and should undertake a sober assessment of its capacities and future competition. Linking to BDS, in either a parallel or partner format may be desirable if an MFI is seeking to secure larger enterprises as clients or to retain better clients who have outgrown micro-loans. The linkage also allows the MFI to gain access to information about a client’s business that can be used to better assess credit risk. In summary, service providers should —opt for voluntary over compulsory; —opt for unified solutions only if the staff can handle it efficiently; and —opt for partner over parallel, if existing providers already exist. There is no definitive answer to the question: what type of linkage? There are only suitable options for given circumstances. (b). Suggestions for effective linkages In addition to the design of the linkage, the review of programs suggests that practitioners and donors need to keep in mind the following issues: Assess your market: Know the existing supply and demand of services, including indigenous and informal forms of delivery of both finance and BDS. Finding out what clients can already obtain and what they need is a key element of keeping providers relevant. Link-up after developing a core competency: Enterprise development institutions with a broad mandate find it difficult to develop a core competency and become sustainable. In short: “have a broad vision but a narrow specialization.” Assess (and re-assess) the benefits of linkage: Providers should not merely accept or reject the option of offering BDS and finance, or of linking with other service providers. Instead they should carefully assess the benefits (and risks) to their organizations, keeping in mind the outreach and developmental objectives. Be client driven: Providers should respond to the market signals from their clients regarding service choice, quality, flexibility, pricing, delivery channels, etc. This will assist their clients and ensure their own sustainability. Use credit as a first service: Successful organizations use credit as a good entry point to gain clients. Once the client has experienced the usefulness of credit she/he may be open to other services. BDS are usually much less “tangible” than credit and therefore the demand may need to be cultivated. Adapt to local sub-sectors: Providers can understand and provide support to specific sub-sectors. Producers usually have different needs than traders; retailers operate differently than wholesalers. Some sub-sectors, such as agro-processing, are seasonal, while in others production and demand may fluctuate less during the year. The examples in this study are mostly related to micro-enterprises. However, providers need to be conscious of the changing nature of their clients. As part-time income-earning opportunities develop into bona fide micro-enterprises and as micro-firms become small firms, they are likely to require a new mix and range of both financial and non-financial services. Larger loan sizes and new modalities may need to be offered to encourage the expansion of enterprises to fill the “missing middle” in the enterprise size structure of developing countries. Issues such as leasing and embedded services provided through suppliers may become more relevant. The range of BDS may broaden with the addition of components such as advice on technologies and productivity, standards, telecommunications, marketing, and leasing, as well as the embedded services provider by product and machinery suppliers. The synergies that result from linking effective services for enterprise development can thus contribute—not only to MSE development—but also to broader structural change in the economies of developing countries.