اثر مدیریت کیفیت جامع (TQM) بر عملکرد در محیط های تحقیق و توسعه: چشم انداز از شرکت های کره جنوبی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|4303||2008||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6309 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technovation, Volume 28, Issue 12, December 2008, Pages 855–863
This paper presents an empirical study, which examines the effectiveness of Total Quality Management (TQM) practices in R&D environments by demonstrating the effect of TQM practices on R&D performance in terms of product quality and product innovation. Despite numerous studies of the relationship between TQM and organisational performance, little research has been done on the relationship between TQM and R&D performance. This study used data from 130 R&D divisions of Korean manufacturing firms. Two research questions were posed, with the first pertaining to the implementation of TQM principles in R&D environments and the second focusing on the effect of TQM on R&D performance. TQM practices were measured by six criteria of Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, and R&D performance measures consist of quality and innovation aspects. Using structural equation modelling techniques, the findings showed the integration of the implementation of TQM practices in R&D divisions as well as the significant contribution of TQM to R&D performance. These findings suggest that TQM as a set of generic principles can be adapted in environments other than manufacturing or production areas.
In the last two decades, Total Quality Management (TQM) has won considerable attention from both industry and academics. It is one of the most popular and durable modern management concepts and philosophies developed in the end of the last century, which has had a profound and unparalleled impact on modern business history. It is evident from empirical studies that majority of the organisations that implement TQM have viewed the benefits of TQM in various ways (Easton and Jarell, 1998; Hendricks and Singhal, 1996). The development of TQM theory has undergone an evolutionary process from quality control, to quality assurance and through to TQM (Bounds et al., 1994; Dale et al., 1994; Ghobadian and Gallear, 2001). The conceptual development of TQM has been reflected in its application, which has permeated beyond production or shop floor areas into wider functions in organisations. However, in the midst of the massive adoption of TQM principles and practices in organisations, there is still lack of rigorous empirical studies on the adoption of TQM in the R&D environment (Kiella and Golhar, 1997; Kumar and Boyle, 2001; May and Pearson, 1993; Price, 1995). This paper seeks to fill this gap using empirical data drawn from R&D divisions of manufacturing firms in Korea. Specifically, the paper aims to test the integration of TQM practices in R&D environments and the effectiveness of TQM in determining R&D performance in terms of product innovation and product quality. This study contributes to the literature on TQM by empirically examining the flexible use of TQM in a different environment, in this case R&D. From a conceptual point of view, TQM comprises a set of generic principles which can be adapted into different environmental contexts, specifically those which are characterised by uncertainty and “nonroutineness” (Sitkin et al., 1994). Examining this premise is important as traditionally R&D has not been a major part of the TQM literature and none of the TQM proponents, including Deming, Juran, or Crosby, have specifically addressed the implication of TQM principles in R&D environments.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study has investigated the effect of TQM on R&D performance using data from South Korean manufacturing firms. Two research questions on the convergence of TQM practices and the impact of TQM practices on R&D performance are examined by the SEM technique. In response to the first research question, the findings show that TQM practices are implemented in an integrated rather than a fragmented manner in the R&D environment. From theoretical perspectives, the findings show that TQM principles are effective for building a range of capabilities that go beyond quality. This is consistent with previous studies which have shown the effectiveness of TQM practices as organisational resources for building innovative capability (Perdomo-Ortiz et al., 2006; Prajogo and Sohal, 2006; Santos-Vijande and A’lvarez-Gonza’lez, 2007). In regard to identifying the positive relationship between implementation of TQM practices and R&D performance, the results obtained in response to the second question support the benefits of TQM adoption in R&D environments. TQM practices have significant impacts on both product quality and product innovation, reflecting that not only creating new products but also improving quality of existing products is a major part of the R&D effort of manufacturing firms. The effect of TQM practices, however, is stronger on product innovation than on product quality, in keeping with the main expected outcomes of R&D functions. Overall, the implication of these findings is that TQM is not only applicable but also effective in enhancing the performance of the R&D functions. Despite the above findings, this study has some limitations that form the bases for new research in this area. First, although this study has shown the effects of TQM for R&D performance, it did not address how to improve and better integrate R&D divisions into the TQM-oriented firm. The role of R&D divisions and how they interact with other functions in organisations in applying TQM principles is an important topic; however, it is beyond the scope of this study. Second, although using self-report data prevails in quality management studies (Lee et al., 2003), future research could consider including archival data to ensure the veracity and accuracy of the findings of the present study. Third, the unit-level observation on R&D divisions did not allow us to investigate the R&D activities at project level. As a result, we could not investigate the variety of activities and objectives assigned to different R&D teams within each unit (Gerchak and Kilgour, 1999; Naveh, 2005). Using project-level observation will enrich our understanding on different approaches of TQM implementation in different situations (Sitkin et al., 1994). Finally, this study did not address the process of implementing TQM in the R&D environment. The different characteristics that R&D personnel would have compared to those working in shop floor areas will affect not only the types of tools and techniques used for applying the TQM principles but also the approach used in diffusing TQM principles into this environment.