دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 4967 + ترجمه فارسی
عنوان فارسی مقاله

رشد اقتصادی در کشورهای در حال توسعه: نقش سرمایه انسانی

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی
4967 2013 31 صفحه PDF 22 صفحه WORD
خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.
عنوان انگلیسی
Economic Growth in Developing Countries: The Role of Human Capital
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Economics of Education Review, Available online 7 May 2013

فهرست مطالب ترجمه فارسی
چکیده
نکات مهم
واژگان کلیدی
رشد اقتصادی در کشورهای در حال توسعه: نقش سرمایه انسانی
ارزیابی سرمایه انسانی در رشد اقتصادی
بهبود پیشرفت تحصیلی در کشورهای در حال توسعه 
مقیاس های بهتری برای ارزیابی کمبودهای منابع انسانی در کشورهای در حال توسعه
رویکردهای متغیر سرمایه انسانی در کشورهای در حال توسعه 
مسائل علت و معلولی
برخی نتایج
جدول 1. برآوردهای جایگزین مدل های رشد بلند مدت
جدول 2. گسترش تحصیلات ابتدایی
جدول 3. عملکرد در زیر سطح 1 در ارزیابی ریاضی PISA
جدول 4. گسترش مدل های پایه برای کشورهای در حال توسعه
تصویر 1. تکمیل ترکیبی و نتایج پیشرفت تحصیلی، کشورهای منتخب
کلمات کلیدی
- توسعه اقتصادی - تاثیر اقتصادی - تقاضا برای تحصیل
ترجمه چکیده
تأکید بر سرمایه انسانی به عنوان محرک رشد اقتصادی در کشورهای در حال توسعه منجر به توجه بیش از حد به پیشرفت تحصیلی شده است. کشورهای در حال توسعه در پر کردن شکاف بین آنها و کشورهای توسعه یافته بر حسب پیشرفت تحصیلی بهبود زیادی داشته اند، اما تحقیقات اخیر بر اهمیت مهارت های شناختی در رشد اقتصاد تأکید کرده اند. این نتیجه توجهات را به سمت مسائل مربوط به کیفیت آموزش جلب کرده اند و کشورهای در حال توسعه در پر کردن شکاف با کشورهای توسعه یافته مؤفقیت های بسیار کمی داشته اند. بدون ارتقای کیفیت آموزش، بهبود برنامه های اقتصادی بلندمدت در کشورهای در حال توسعه دشوار خواهد بود.
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله رشد اقتصادی در کشورهای در حال توسعه: نقش سرمایه انسانی

چکیده انگلیسی

The focus on human capital as a driver of economic growth for developing countries has led to undue attention on school attainment. Developing countries have made considerable progress in closing the gap with developed countries in terms of school attainment, but recent research has underscored the importance of cognitive skills for economic growth. This result shifts attention to issues of school quality, and there developing countries have been much less successful in closing the gaps with developed countries. Without improving school quality, developing countries will find it difficult to improve their long run economic performance.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

Much of the motivation for human capital policies in developing countries is the possibility of providing economic growth that will raise the levels of incomes in these countries. The focus on alleviating poverty in developing countries relates directly to economic growth because of the realization that simply redistributing incomes and resources will not lead to long run solutions to poverty. The direct analysis of growth in developing countries adds a much more specific focus than has existed in much of the current policy discussions. Differences in economic growth across countries are closely related to cognitive skills as measured by achievement on international assessments of mathematics and science. In fact, once cognitive skills are incorporated into empirical growth models, school attainment has no independent impact on growth. The general focus on universal school attainment underlying the campaigns of Education for All and Millennium Development Goals, while seemingly reasonable and important, have not put the developing countries in a good position for growth. Specifically, while emphasizing school attainment – a readily available quantitative measure – they have not ensured that the quality of schools has had a commensurate improvement. The data on improvements in school attainment has been impressive, but the very large gaps in achievement lead to a different interpretation of progress. In terms of cognitive skills, little closing of the gaps between developed and developing countries has occurred.21 A surprisingly large proportion of students completing nine years of schooling is uncompetitive in terms of international skill levels. A focus on quality does, however, complicate decision making. It appears to be generally easier to understand how to expand access than to improve quality. Simple approaches to improving quality have not proved very effective. Past research has indicated that just providing more resources to schools is generally ineffective.22 Political problems may also accompany an emphasis on quality. For any given amount of funds, if resources are focused on a smaller set of schools in order to improve quality, it implies that less access to schooling can be provided. Certainly, in order to provide quality schooling, there must be both infrastructure and access. However, the evidence from the growth analysis indicates that providing schools that fail to teach basic skills does no good. Therefore, slowing the pace of the provision of schools to a rate that also permits the development of quality schools appears to be a good solution. One other element enters into the calculations. The rapid expansion of new digital technologies – both as blended learning with teachers and technology and as standalone approaches – suggests that many of the past decisions both on access and on quality might rapidly change.23 The potential in developing countries appears especially large.

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